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Global maps of soil temperature

Jonas Lembrechts 1, * Johan van den Hoogen Juha Aalto Michael Ashcroft Pieter de Frenne Julia Kemppinen Martin Kopecký Miska Luoto Ilya Maclean Thomas Crowther Joseph Bailey Stef Haesen David Klinges Pekka Niittynen Brett Scheffers Koenraad van Meerbeek Peter Aartsma Otar Abdalaze Mehdi Abedi Rien Aerts Negar Ahmadian Antje Ahrends Juha Alatalo Jake Alexander Camille Nina Allonsius Jan Altman Christof Ammann Christian Andres Christopher Andrews Jonas Ardö Nicola Arriga Alberto Arzac Valeria Aschero Rafael Assis Jakob Johann Assmann Maaike Bader Khadijeh Bahalkeh Peter Barančok Isabel Barrio Agustina Barros Matti Barthel Edmund Basham Marijn Bauters Manuele Bazzichetto 2 Luca Belelli Marchesini Michael Bell Juan Benavides José Luis Benito Alonso Bernd Berauer Jarle Bjerke Robert Björk Mats Björkman Katrin Björnsdóttir Benjamin Blonder Pascal Boeckx Julia Boike Stef Bokhorst Bárbara Brum Josef Brůna Nina Buchmann Pauline Buysse 3 José Luís Camargo Otávio Campoe Onur Candan Rafaella Canessa Nicoletta Cannone Michele Carbognani Jofre Carnicer Angélica Casanova‐katny Simone Cesarz Bogdan Chojnicki Philippe Choler 4, 5 Steven Chown Edgar Cifuentes Marek Čiliak Tamara Contador Peter Convey Elisabeth Cooper Edoardo Cremonese Salvatore Curasi Robin Curtis Maurizio Cutini C. Johan Dahlberg Gergana Daskalova Miguel Angel de Pablo Stefano Della Chiesa Jürgen Dengler Bart Deronde Patrice Descombes Valter Di Cecco Michele Di Musciano Jan Dick Romina Dimarco Jiri Dolezal Ellen Dorrepaal Jiří Dušek Nico Eisenhauer Lars Eklundh Todd Erickson Brigitta Erschbamer Werner Eugster Robert Ewers Dan Exton Nicolas Fanin 6 Fatih Fazlioglu Iris Feigenwinter Giuseppe Fenu Olga Ferlian M. Rosa Fernández Calzado Eduardo Fernández‐pascual Manfred Finckh Rebecca Finger Higgens t'Ai Forte Erika Freeman Esther Frei Eduardo Fuentes‐lillo Rafael García María García Charly Géron Mana Gharun Dany Ghosn Khatuna Gigauri Anne Gobin Ignacio Goded Mathias Goeckede Felix Gottschall Keith Goulding Sanne Govaert Bente Jessen Graae Sarah Greenwood Caroline Greiser Achim Grelle Benoit Guénard Mauro Guglielmin Joannès Guillemot 7, 8 Peter Haase Sylvia Haider Aud Halbritter Maroof Hamid Albin Hammerle Arndt Hampe 9 Siri Haugum Lucia Hederová Bernard Heinesch Carole Helfter Daniel Hepenstrick Maximiliane Herberich Mathias Herbst Luise Hermanutz David Hik Raúl Hoffrén Jürgen Homeier Lukas Hörtnagl Toke Høye Filip Hrbacek Kristoffer Hylander Hiroki Iwata Marcin Antoni Jackowicz‐korczynski Hervé Jactel 9 Järvi Järveoja Szymon Jastrzębowski Anke Jentsch Juan Jiménez Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir Tommaso Jucker Alistair Jump Radoslaw Juszczak Róbert Kanka Vít Kašpar George Kazakis Julia Kelly Anzar Khuroo Leif Klemedtsson Marcin Klisz Natascha Kljun Alexander Knohl Johannes Kobler Jozef Kollár Martyna Kotowska Bence Kovács Juergen Kreyling Andrea Lamprecht Simone Lang Christian Larson Keith Larson Kamil Laska Guerric Maire 7, 8 Rachel Leihy Luc Lens Bengt Liljebladh Annalea Lohila Juan Lorite Benjamin Loubet 3 Joshua Lynn Martin Macek Roy Mackenzie Enzo Magliulo Regine Maier Francesco Malfasi František Máliš Matěj Man Giovanni Manca Antonio Manco Tanguy Manise Paraskevi Manolaki Felipe Marciniak Radim Matula Ana Clara Mazzolari Sergiy Medinets Volodymyr Medinets Camille Meeussen Sonia Merinero Rita de Cássia Guimarães Mesquita Katrin Meusburger Filip Meysman Sean Michaletz Ann Milbau Dmitry Moiseev Pavel Moiseev Andrea Mondoni Ruth Monfries Leonardo Montagnani Mikel Moriana‐armendariz Umberto Morra Di Cella Martin Mörsdorf Jonathan Mosedale Lena Muffler Miriam Muñoz‐rojas Jonathan Myers Isla Myers‐smith Laszlo Nagy Marianna Nardino Ilona Naujokaitis‐lewis Emily Newling Lena Nicklas Georg Niedrist Armin Niessner Mats Nilsson Signe Normand Marcelo Nosetto yann Nouvellon 7, 8 Martin Nuñez Romà Ogaya Jérôme Ogée 6 Joseph Okello Janusz Olejnik Jørgen Eivind Olesen Øystein Opedal Simone Orsenigo Andrej Palaj Timo Pampuch Alexey Panov Meelis Pärtel Ada Pastor Aníbal Pauchard Harald Pauli Marian Pavelka William Pearse Matthias Peichl Loïc Pellissier Rachel Penczykowski Josep Penuelas Matteo Petit Bon Alessandro Petraglia Shyam Phartyal Gareth Phoenix Casimiro Pio Andrea Pitacco Camille Pitteloud Roman Plichta Francesco Porro Miguel Portillo‐estrada Jérôme Poulenard 10 Rafael Poyatos Anatoly Prokushkin Radoslaw Puchalka Mihai Pușcaș Dajana Radujković Krystal Randall Amanda Ratier Backes Sabine Remmele Wolfram Remmers D Renault 2, 11 Anita Risch Christian Rixen Sharon Robinson Bjorn J.M. Robroek Adrian Rocha Christian Rossi Graziano Rossi Olivier Roupsard 7, 8 Alexey Rubtsov Patrick Saccone Clotilde Sagot Jhonatan Sallo Bravo Cinthya Santos Judith Sarneel Tobias Scharnweber Jonas Schmeddes Marius Schmidt Thomas Scholten Max Schuchardt Naomi Schwartz Tony Scott Julia Seeber Ana Cristina Segalin de Andrade Tim Seipel Philipp Semenchuk Rebecca Senior Josep Serra-Diaz 12 Piotr Sewerniak Ankit Shekhar Nikita Sidenko Lukas Siebicke Laura Siegwart Collier Elizabeth Simpson David Siqueira Zuzana Sitková Johan Six Marko Smiljanic Stuart Smith Sarah Smith‐tripp Ben Somers Mia Vedel Sørensen José João L. L. Souza Bartolomeu Israel Souza Arildo Souza Dias Marko Spasojevic James Speed Fabien Spicher 13 Angela Stanisci Klaus Steinbauer Rainer Steinbrecher Michael Steinwandter Michael Stemkovski Jörg Stephan Christian Stiegler Stefan Stoll Martin Svátek Miroslav Svoboda Torbern Tagesson Andrew Tanentzap Franziska Tanneberger Jean‐paul Theurillat Haydn Thomas Andrew Thomas Katja Tielbörger Marcello Tomaselli Urs Albert Treier Mario Trouillier Pavel Dan Turtureanu Rosamond Tutton Vilna Tyystjärvi Masahito Ueyama Karol Ujházy Mariana Ujházyová Domas Uogintas Anastasiya Urban Josef Urban Marek Urbaniak Tudor‐mihai Ursu Francesco Primo Vaccari Stijn van de Vondel Liesbeth van den Brink Maarten van Geel Vigdis Vandvik Pieter Vangansbeke Andrej Varlagin G.F. Veen Elmar Veenendaal Susanna Venn Hans Verbeeck Erik Verbrugggen Frank G.A. Verheijen Luis Villar Luca Vitale Pascal Vittoz Maria Vives‐ingla Jonathan von Oppen Josefine Walz Runxi Wang yifeng Wang Robert Way Ronja Wedegärtner Robert Weigel Jan Wild Matthew Wilkinson Martin Wilmking Lisa Wingate 6 Manuela Winkler Sonja Wipf Georg Wohlfahrt Georgios Xenakis yan yang Zicheng yu Kailiang yu Florian Zellweger Jian Zhang Zhaochen Zhang Peng Zhao Klaudia Ziemblińska Reiner Zimmermann Shengwei Zong Viacheslav Zyryanov Ivan Nijs Jonathan Roger Michel Henri Lenoir 13, * 
Abstract : Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km² resolution for 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e., offset) between in-situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km² pixels (summarized from 8500 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (-0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in-situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.
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Jonas Lembrechts, Johan van den Hoogen, Juha Aalto, Michael Ashcroft, Pieter de Frenne, et al.. Global maps of soil temperature. Global Change Biology, Wiley, 2022, 28 (9), pp.3110-3144. ⟨10.1111/gcb.16060⟩. ⟨hal-03518443⟩

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