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Bi-layer Kinetic Inductance detectors for space observations between 80-120 GHz

Abstract : We have developed Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKID) sensitive in the frequency band from 80 to 120~GHz. In this work, we take advantage of the so-called proximity effect to reduce the superconducting gap of Aluminium, otherwise strongly suppressing the LEKID response for frequencies smaller than 100~GHz. We have designed, produced and optically tested various fully multiplexed arrays based on multi-layers combinations of Aluminium (Al) and Titanium (Ti). Their sensitivities have been measured using a dedicated closed-circle 100 mK dilution cryostat and a sky simulator allowing to reproduce realistic observation conditions. The spectral response has been characterised with a Martin-Puplett interferometer up to THz frequencies, and with a resolution of 3~GHz. We demonstrate that Ti-Al LEKID can reach an optical sensitivity of about $1.4$ $10^{-17}$~$W/Hz^{0.5}$ (best pixel), or $2.2$ $10^{-17}$~$W/Hz^{0.5}$ when averaged over the whole array. The optical background was set to roughly 0.4~pW per pixel, typical for future space observatories in this particular band. The performance is close to a sensitivity of twice the CMB photon noise limit at 100~GHz which drove the design of the Planck HFI instrument. This figure remains the baseline for the next generation of millimetre-wave space satellites.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 16, 2022 - 11:07:51 AM
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A. Catalano, J. Goupy, Hélène Le Sueur, A. Benoit, O. Bourrion, et al.. Bi-layer Kinetic Inductance detectors for space observations between 80-120 GHz. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2015, 580, pp.A15. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201526206⟩. ⟨in2p3-01141710⟩

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