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Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Homozygous Sickle Cell Patients: A Hemolysis-Mediated Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia Phenotype?

Abstract : Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) has been reported to have a higher prevalence in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients, including a high rate of recurrence following surgery. However, most patients are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis, with surprisingly infrequent hypercalciuria, raising the issue of renal calcium handling in SCD patients. We conducted a retrospective study including (1) 64 hypercalcemic pHPT non-SCD patients; (2) 177 SCD patients, divided into two groups of 12 hypercalcemic pHPT and 165 non-pHPT; (3) eight patients with a diagnosis of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH). Demographic and biological parameters at the time of diagnosis were collected and compared between the different groups. Determinants of fasting fractional excretion of calcium (FeCa2+) were also analyzed in non-pHPT SCD patients. Compared to non-SCD pHPT patients, our data show a similar ionized calcium and PTH concentration, with a lower plasmatic calcitriol concentration and a lower daily urinary calcium excretion in pHPT SCD patients (p < 0.0001 in both cases). Fasting FeCa2+ is also surprisingly low in pHPT SCD patients, and thus inadequate to be considered hypercalcemia, recalling the FHH phenotype. FeCa2+ is also low in the non-pHPT SCD control group, and negatively associated with PTH and hemolytic biomarkers such as LDH and low hemoglobin. Our data suggest that the pHPT biochemical phenotype in SCD patients resembles the FHH phenotype, and the fasting FeCa2+ association with chronic hemolysis biomarkers strengthens the view of a potential pharmacological link between hemolytic by-products and calcium reabsorption, potentially through a decreased calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) activity.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 16, 2021 - 2:40:31 PM
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Edmat Akhtar Khan, Lynda Cheddani, Camille Saint-Jacques, Rosa Vargas-Poussou, Vincent Frochot, et al.. Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Homozygous Sickle Cell Patients: A Hemolysis-Mediated Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia Phenotype?. Journal of Clinical Medicine, MDPI, 2021, 10 (21), pp.5179. ⟨10.3390/jcm10215179⟩. ⟨hal-03430936⟩

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