J. Kerr, A. H. Wyllie, and A. R. Currie, Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics, Br J Cancer, vol.26, p.4561027, 1972.

G. Häcker, The morphology of apoptosis, Cell Tissue Res, vol.301, p.10928277, 2000.

S. Elmore, Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death, Toxicol Pathol, vol.35, p.17562483, 2007.

A. Vigneron, F. Masson, A. Vallier, S. Balmand, M. Rey et al., Insects recycle endosymbionts when the benefit is over, Curr Biol, vol.24, p.25242028, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01449142

S. R. Dunn, C. E. Schnitzler, and V. M. Weis, Apoptosis and autophagy as mechanisms of dinoflagellate symbiont release during cnidarian bleaching: every which way you lose, Proc R Soc B Biol Sci, vol.274, p.17925275, 2007.

S. R. Dunn and V. M. Weis, Apoptosis as a post-phagocytic winnowing mechanism in a coral-dinoflagellate mutualism, Environ Microbiol, vol.11, p.19125818, 2009.

S. Duperron, A. Quiles, K. M. Szafranski, N. Lé-ger, and B. Shillito, Estimating symbiont abundances and gill surface areas in specimens of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis maintained in pressure vessels, Front Mar Sci, vol.3, pp.1-12, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01278917

S. Duperron, The diversity of deep-sea mussels and their bacterial symbioses, Vent Seep Biota, vol.33, pp.137-67, 2010.

C. R. Fisher, J. J. Childress, R. S. Oremland, and R. R. Bidigare, The importance of methane and thiosulfate in the metabolism of the bacterial symbionts of two deep-sea mussels, Mar Biol, vol.96, pp.59-71, 1987.

M. Sibuet, K. Olu, and . Biogeography, biodiversity and fluid dependence of deep-sea cold-seep communities at active and passive margins, Deep Sea Res Part II, vol.45, p.74, 1998.

B. Pflugfelder, S. C. Cary, and M. Bright, Dynamics of cell proliferation and apoptosis reflect different life strategies in hydrothermal vent and cold seep vestimentiferan tubeworms, Cell Tissue Res, vol.337, p.19444472, 2009.

J. Lorion, S. Kiel, B. Faure, M. Kawato, S. Ho et al., Adaptive radiation of chemosymbiotic deep-sea mussels, Proc R Soc B Biol Sci, vol.280, p.24048154, 2013.

A. Fiala-médioni, C. Mé-tivier, A. Herry, L. Pennec, and M. , Ultrastructure of the gill of the hydrothermal-vent mytilid Bathymodiolus sp, Mar Biol, vol.92, pp.65-72, 1986.

K. M. Szafranski, B. Piquet, B. Shillito, F. H. Lallier, and S. Duperron, Relative abundances of methane-and sulfur-oxidizing symbionts in gills of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus under pressure, Deep Sea Res Part Oceanogr Res Pap, vol.101, pp.7-13, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01133684

S. Halary, V. Riou, F. Gaill, T. Boudier, and S. Duperron, 3D FISH for the quantification of methane-and sulphur-oxidizing endosymbionts in bacteriocytes of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus, ISME J, vol.2, p.18219282, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00325687

V. Riou, S. Halary, S. Duperron, S. Bouillon, M. Elskens et al., Influence of CH 4 and H 2 S availability on symbiont distribution, carbon assimilation and transfer in the dual symbiotic vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus, Biogeosciences, vol.5, pp.1681-91, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00419620

H. Guezi, I. Boutet, A. C. Andersen, F. H. Lallier, and A. Tanguy, Comparative analysis of symbiont ratios and gene expression in natural populations of two Bathymodiolus mussel species, Symbiosis, vol.63, pp.19-29, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01109381

E. Ká-dá-r, R. Bettencourt, V. Costa, R. S. Santos, A. Lobo-da-cunha et al., Experimentally induced endosymbiont loss and re-acquirement in the hydrothermal vent bivalve Bathymodiolus azoricus, J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, vol.318, pp.99-110, 2005.

V. Riou, A. Colaço, S. Bouillon, A. Khripounoff, P. Dando et al., Mixotrophy in the deep sea: a dual endosymbiotic hydrothermal mytilid assimilates dissolved and particulate organic matter, Mar Ecol Prog Ser, vol.405, pp.187-201, 2010.

J. P. Barry, K. R. Buck, R. K. Kochevar, D. C. Nelson, Y. Fujiwara et al., Methane-based symbiosis in a mussel, Bathymodiolus platifrons, from cold seeps in Sagami Bay, Japan. Invertebr Biol, vol.121, pp.47-54, 2002.

A. Fiala-medioni, J. Michalski, J. Jollès, C. Alonso, and J. Montreuil, Lysosomic and lysozyme activities in the gill of bivalves from deep hydrothermal vents, Comptes Rendus Académie Sci, vol.317, pp.239-283, 1994.

M. E. Streams, C. R. Fisher, and A. Fiala-medioni, Methanotrophic symbiont location and fate of carbon incorporated from methane in a hydrocarbon seep mussel, Mar Biol, vol.129, pp.465-476, 1997.

E. Ká-dá-r, S. A. Davis, and A. Lobo-da-cunha, Cytoenzymatic investigation of intracellular digestion in the symbiont-bearing hydrothermal bivalve Bathymodiolus azoricus, Mar Biol, vol.153, pp.995-1004, 2008.

I. Boutet, R. Ripp, O. Lecompte, C. Dossat, E. Corre et al., Conjugating effects of symbionts and environmental factors on gene expression in deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussels, BMC Genomics, vol.12, p.22034982, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00642454

H. Guezi, I. Boutet, A. Tanguy, and F. H. Lallier, The potential implication of apoptosis in the control of chemosynthetic symbionts in Bathymodiolus thermophilus, Fish Shellfish Immunol, vol.34, p.1709, 2013.

R. Bettencourt, M. Pinheiro, C. Egas, P. Gomes, M. Afonso et al., High-throughput sequencing and analysis of the gill tissue transcriptome from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus, BMC Genomics, vol.11, p.20937131, 2010.

Y. H. Wong, J. Sun, L. S. He, L. G. Chen, J. Qiu et al., High-throughput transcriptome sequencing of the cold seep mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons, Sci Rep, vol.5, p.26593439, 2015.

P. Zheng, M. Wang, C. Li, X. Sun, X. Wang et al., Insights into deep-sea adaptations and host-symbiont interactions: a comparative transcriptome study on Bathymodiolus mussels and their coastal relatives, Mol Ecol, vol.2017, p.28437568

I. M. Sokolova, Apoptosis in molluscan immune defense, Invertebr Surviv J, vol.6, pp.49-58, 2009.

T. Kiss, Apoptosis and its functional significance in molluscs, Apoptosis, vol.15, pp.313-334, 2010.

A. Romero, B. Novoa, and A. Figueras, The complexity of apoptotic cell death in mollusks: An update, Fish Shellfish Immunol, vol.46, p.25862972, 2015.

I. Barros, S. Mendes, D. Rosa, S. Santos, R. Bettencourt et al., Vibrio diabolicus immunomodulatory effects on Bathymodiolus azoricus during long-term acclimatization at atmospheric pressure, J Aquac Res Dev, vol.7, 2016.

. Cosel-r-von, B. Métivier, and J. Hashimoto, Three new species of Bathymodiolus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from hydrothermal vents in the Lau Basin and the north Fiji Basin, western Pacific, and the Snake Pit area, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, The Veliger, vol.37, pp.374-92, 1994.

. Cosel-r-von, T. Comtet, and E. M. Krylova, Bathymodiolus (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from hydrothermal vents on the Azores Triple Junction and the Logatchev Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, The Veliger, vol.42, pp.218-266, 1999.

K. Olu-le-roy, . Cosel-r-von, S. Hourdez, S. L. Carney, and D. Jollivet, Amphi-Atlantic cold-seep Bathymodiolus species complexes across the equatorial belt, Deep Sea Res Part Oceanogr Res Pap, vol.54, pp.1890-911, 2007.

A. Fiala-medioni, Z. P. Mckiness, P. R. Dando, J. Boulegue, A. Mariotti et al., Ultrastructural, biochemical, and immunological characterization of two populations of the mytilid mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: evidence for a dual symbiosis, Mar Biol, vol.141, pp.1035-1078, 2002.

F. Pradillon, High hydrostatic pressure environments, Life Extrem. Environ. Org. Strateg. Surviv, pp.271-95, 2012.

F. Pradillon and F. Gaill, Pressure and life: some biological strategies, Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol, vol.6, pp.181-95, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00198958

B. Shillito, G. Hamel, C. Duchi, D. Cottin, J. Sarrazin et al., Live capture of megafauna from 2300m depth, using a newly designed Pressurized Recovery Device, Deep Sea Res Part Oceanogr Res Pap, vol.55, pp.881-890, 2008.

N. H. Elisabeth, S. Gustave, and O. Gros, Cell proliferation and apoptosis in gill filaments of the lucinid Codakia orbiculata (Montagu, 1808) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during bacterial decolonization and recolonization, Microsc Res Tech, vol.75, p.22438018, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01545915

Y. Gavrieli, Y. Sherman, and S. A. Ben-sasson, Identification of programmed cell death in situ via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation, J Cell Biol, vol.119, p.1400587, 1992.

F. Lallier and . Biobaz, Pourquoi pas? R/V 2013, 2013.

M. Cambon-bonavita, . Bicose-cruise, and . Pourquoi-pas?-r/v, , 2014.

J. Ravaux, G. Hamel, M. Zbinden, A. A. Tasiemski, I. Boutet et al., Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: In vivo heat tolerance of the pompeii worm, PLoS ONE, vol.8, p.23734185, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01110790

K. Olu, . Wacs-cruise, and . Pourquoi-pas?-r/v, , 2011.

M. D. Abràmoff, P. J. Magalhães, and S. J. Ram, Image processing with ImageJ, Biophotonics Int, vol.11, pp.36-42, 2004.

S. Duperron, H. Guezi, S. M. Gaudron, P. Ristova, P. et al., Relative abundances of methane-and sulphur-oxidising symbionts in the gills of a cold seep mussel and link to their potential energy sources: Variability of symbiont abundances in a seep mussel, Geobiology, vol.9, p.21978364, 2011.

C. De-torres, F. Munell, I. Ferrer, J. Reventos, and A. Macaya, Identification of necrotic cell death by the TUNEL assay in the hypoxic-ischemic neonatal rat brain, Neurosci Lett, vol.230, p.9259449, 1997.

F. Labat-moleur, C. Guillermet, P. Lorimier, C. Robert, S. Lantuejoul et al., TUNEL apoptotic cell detection in tissue sections: critical evaluation and improvement, J Histochem Cytochem, vol.46, p.9487114, 1998.

G. Kroemer, L. Galluzzi, P. Vandenabeele, J. Abrams, E. S. Alnemri et al., Classification of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death, Cell Death Differ, vol.16, p.18846107, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00407686

C. M. Motta, V. Frezza, and P. Simoniello, Caspase 3 in molluscan tissues: Localization and possible function, J Exp Zool Part Ecol Genet Physiol, vol.319, p.24039235, 2013.

K. M. Boatright and G. S. Salvesen, Mechanisms of caspase activation, Curr Opin Cell Biol, vol.15, p.14644197, 2003.

J. Yuan, A. Najafov, and B. F. Py, Roles of Caspases in Necrotic Cell Death, Cell, vol.167, p.27984721, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01911306

J. E. Chipuk and D. R. Green, Do inducers of apoptosis trigger caspase-independent cell death?, Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, vol.6, p.15714200, 2005.

M. C. Abraham and S. Shaham, Death without caspases, caspases without death, Trends Cell Biol, vol.14, p.15066636, 2004.

J. J. Childress, A. T. Barnes, L. B. Quetin, and B. H. Robison, Thermally protecting cod ends for the recovery of living deep-sea animals, Deep Sea Res, vol.25, pp.419-441, 1978.

B. Shillito, F. Gaill, and J. Ravaux, The IPOCAMP pressure incubator for deep-sea fauna, J Mar Sci Technol, vol.22, pp.97-102, 2014.

J. J. Childress and P. R. Girguis, The metabolic demands of endosymbiotic chemoautotrophic metabolism on host physiological capacities, J Exp Biol, vol.214, p.21177951, 2011.

A. Fiala-medioni, Synthèse sur les adaptations structurales lié es à la nutrition des mollusques bivalves des sources hydrothermales profondes, Oceanol Acta, vol.N?SP, pp.173-182, 1988.

Y. Mone, D. Monnin, and N. Kremer, The oxidative environment: a mediator of interspecies communication that drives symbiosis evolution, Proc R Soc B Biol Sci, vol.281, p.24807248, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01916837

M. L. Circu and T. Y. Aw, Reactive oxygen species, cellular redox systems, and apoptosis, Free Radic Biol Med, vol.48, pp.749-62, 2010.

I. M. Sokolova, Cadmium-induced apoptosis in oyster hemocytes involves disturbance of cellular energy balance but no mitochondrial permeability transition, J Exp Biol, vol.207, p.15326213, 2004.

R. Company, A. Serafim, M. J. Bebianno, R. Cosson, B. Shillito et al., Effect of cadmium, copper and mercury on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the gills of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus, Mar Environ Res, vol.58, p.15178056, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00129557

I. Sunila and J. Labanca, Apoptosis in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, Dis Aquat Organ, vol.56, p.14598992, 2003.

M. Goedken, B. Morsey, I. Sunila, C. Dungan, and S. De-guise, The effects of temperature and salinity on apoptosis of Crassostrea virginica hemocytes and Perkinsus marinus, J Shellfish Res, vol.24, pp.177-83, 2005.

J. S. Foster and M. J. Mcfall-ngai, Induction of apoptosis by cooperative bacteria in the morphogenesis of host epithelial tissues, Dev Genes Evol, vol.208, p.9716720, 1998.

C. Wentrup, A. Wendeberg, J. Y. Huang, C. Borowski, and N. Dubilier, Shift from widespread symbiont infection of host tissues to specific colonization of gills in juvenile deep-sea mussels, ISME J, vol.7, p.23389105, 2013.

C. Wentrup, A. Wendeberg, M. Schimak, C. Borowski, and N. Dubilier, Forever competent: deep-sea bivalves are colonized by their chemosynthetic symbionts throughout their lifetime: Symbiont colonization in gills of deep-sea bivalves, Environ Microbiol, vol.16, p.25142549, 2014.

E. C. Raulfs, S. A. Macko, V. Dover, and C. L. , Tissue and symbiont condition of mussels (Bathymodiolus thermophilus) exposed to varying levels of hydrothermal activity, J Mar Biol Assoc UK, vol.84, pp.229-263, 2004.

L. Pennec, M. , and H. A. Anatomie, structure et ultrastructure de la branchie d'un Mytilidae des sites hydrothermaux du pacifique oriental, Oceanol Acta, vol.7, pp.517-540, 1984.