C. Darwin, On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life, 1859.

A. R. Wallace and . Island-life, , 1881.

R. H. Macarthur and E. O. Wilson, The theory of island biogeography, 1967.

R. G. Gillespie and G. K. Roderick, Arthropods on islands: Colonization, speciation, and conservation, Annu. Rev. Entomol, vol.47, pp.595-632, 2002.

J. B. Losos and R. E. Ricklefs, Adaptation and diversification on islands, Nature, vol.457, pp.830-836, 2009.

C. Kueffer, D. R. Drake, and J. M. Fernández-palacios, Island biology: Looking towards the future, Biol. Lett, vol.10, p.20140719, 2014.

M. Heads, Old taxa on young islands: A critique of the use of island age to date island-endemic clades and calibrate phylogenies, Syst. Biol, vol.60, pp.204-142, 2011.

U. Swenson, S. Nylinder, and S. J. Wagstaff, Are Asteraceae 1.5 Billion Years Old? A Reply to Heads, Syst. Biol

J. M. Waters, Biogeography off the tracks, Syst. Biol, vol.62, pp.494-498, 2013.

A. D. Yoder and M. D. Nowak, Has Vicariance or Dispersal Been the Predominant Biogeographic Force in Madagascar? Only Time Will Tell, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst, vol.37, pp.405-431, 2006.

S. A. Trewick, A. M. Paterson, and H. J. Campbell, J. Biogeogr, vol.34, pp.1-6, 2007.

J. Murienne, Evolution on a shaky piece of Gondwana: Is local endemism recent in New Caledonia?, Cladistics, vol.21, pp.2-7, 2005.

P. Grandcolas, New Caledonia: A very old Darwinian island?, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci, vol.363, pp.3309-3317, 2008.

M. Espeland and J. Murienne, Diversity dynamics in New Caledonia: Towards the end of the museum model?, Bmc Evol. Biol, vol.11, p.254, 2011.

R. Nattier, T. Robillard, L. Desutter-grandcolas, A. Couloux, and P. Grandcolas, Older than New Caledonia emergence? A molecular phylogenetic study of the eneopterine crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea), J. Biogeogr, vol.38, pp.2195-2209, 2011.

P. H. Raven and D. I. Axelrod, Plate tectonics and australasian paleobiogeography, Science, vol.176, pp.1379-1386, 1972.

G. R. Stevens, Southwest pacific faunal palaeobiogeography in mesozoic and cenozoic times: A review, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol, vol.31, pp.153-196, 1980.

P. Morat, Our knowledge of the flora of New Caledonia: Endemism and diversity in relation to vegetation types and substrates, Biodivers. Lett, vol.1, pp.72-81, 1993.

P. P. Lowry, Diversity, endemism, and extinction in the flora of New Caledonia: a review, Proc. Int. Symp. on Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Floras of Asia and the Pacific, vol.16, pp.181-206, 1998.

P. Grandcolas, Ten false ideas about New Caledonia biogeography, Cladistics in press, 2016.

J. P. Paris and . Géologie-de-la-nouvelle-calédonie, Un essai de synthèse (Mémoire pour servir notice explicative à la carte géologique de la Nouvelle-Calédonie à l' échelle du 1/200000), Mém. Bur. Rech. Géologiques Minières, vol.113, pp.1-278, 1981.

J. C. Aitchison, G. L. Clarke, S. Meffre, and D. Cluzel, Eocene arc-continent collision in New-Caledonia and implications for regional southwest Pacific tectonic evolution, Geology, vol.23, pp.161-164, 1995.

D. Cluzel, J. C. Aitchison, and C. Picard, Tectonic accretion and underplating of mafic terranes in the Late Eocene intraoceanic forearc of New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific): geodynamic implications, Tectonophysics, vol.340, pp.23-59, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00089721

D. Cluzel, P. Maurizot, J. Collot, and B. Sevin, An outline of the geology of New Caledonia; from Permian-Mesozoic South-Gondwana active margin to Tertiary obduction and supergene evolution, Episodes, vol.35, pp.72-86, 2012.

A. J. Crawford, S. Meffre, and P. A. Symonds, Chapter 25: 120 to 0 Ma tectonic evolution of the southwest Pacific and analogous geological evolution of the 600 to 220 Ma Tasman Fold Belt System, Geol. Soc. Aust. Spec. Publ, vol.22, pp.377-397, 2003.

B. Pelletier, Geology of the New Caledonia region and its implications for the study of the New Caledonian biodiversity, Compend. Mar. Species New Caledonia Doss. Sci. Tech, vol.7, pp.19-32, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00497949

A. Cruaud, R. Jabbour-zahab, G. Genson, S. Ungricht, and J. Rasplus, Testing the Emergence of New Caledonia: Fig Wasp Mutualism as a Case Study and a Review of Evidence, PLoS ONE, vol.7, p.30941, 2012.

Y. Pillon, Time and tempo of diversification in the flora of New Caledonia, Bot. J. Linn. Soc, vol.170, pp.288-298, 2012.

J. L. Gressitt, Some distribution patterns of Pacific island faunae, Syst. Zool, vol.5, pp.11-32, 1956.

S. Carlquist and . Island-life, , 1965.

U. Swenson, S. Nylinder, and J. Munzinger, Sapotaceae biogeography supports New Caledonia being an old Darwinian island, J. Biogeogr, vol.41, pp.797-809, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02078329

M. Heads, Panbiogeography of New Caledonia, South-west Pacific: basal angiosperms on basement terranes, ultramafic endemics inherited from volcanic island arcs and old taxa endemic to young islands, J. Biogeogr, vol.35, pp.2153-2175, 2008.

M. D. Crisp, S. A. Trewick, and L. G. Cook, Hypothesis testing in biogeography, Trends Ecol. Evol, vol.26, pp.66-72, 2011.

P. Grandcolas, R. Nattier, and S. Trewick, Relict species: a relict concept?, Trends Ecol. Evol, vol.29, pp.655-663, 2014.

R. Nattier, Secondary sympatry caused by range expansion informs on the dynamics of microendemism in a biodiversity hotspot, PLoS One, vol.7, p.48047, 2012.

R. Nattier, Climate and soil type together explain the distribution of microendemic species in a biodiversity hotspot, PLoS One, vol.8, p.80811, 2013.

A. Crottini, Vertebrate time-tree elucidates the biogeographic pattern of a major biotic change around the K-T boundary in Madagascar, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, vol.109, pp.5358-5363, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00685189

K. E. Samonds, Spatial and temporal arrival patterns of Madagascar's vertebrate fauna explained by distance, ocean currents, and ancestor type, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, vol.109, pp.5352-5357, 2012.

M. S. Mcglone and . Gondwana, J. Biogeogr, vol.32, pp.739-740, 2005.

G. P. Wallis and S. A. Trewick, New Zealand phylogeography: evolution on a small continent, Mol. Ecol, vol.18, pp.3548-3580, 2009.

J. G. Conran, Subtropical rainforest vegetation from Cosy Dell, Southland: Plant fossil evidence for Late Oligocene terrestrial ecosystems, N. Z. J. Geol. Geophys, vol.57, pp.236-252, 2014.

P. J. Kamp, A. R. Tripathi, and C. S. Nelson, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Geol. Geophys, vol.57, pp.128-148, 2014.

K. J. Matthews, Geologic and kinematic constraints on Late Cretaceous to mid Eocene plate boundaries in the southwest Pacific, Earth-Sci. Rev, vol.140, pp.72-107, 2015.

R. H. Herzer, Seismic stratigraphy and structural history of the Reinga Basin and its margins, southern Norfolk Ridge system, N. Z. J. Geol. Geophys, vol.40, pp.425-451, 1997.

S. Meffre, Arc-continent collision forming a large island between New Caledonia and New Zealand in the Oligocene, Arccontinent collision forming a large island between New Caledonia and New Zealand in the Oligocene, ASEG Ext. Abstr. ASEG Ext. Abstr, 2006.

P. Y. Ladiges and D. Cantrill, New Caledonia-Australian connections: Biogeographic patterns and geology, Aust. Syst. Bot, vol.20, pp.383-389, 2007.

M. Heads, Biological disjunction along the West Caledonian fault, New Caledonia: A synthesis of molecular phylogenetics and panbiogeography, Bot. J. Linn. Soc, vol.158, pp.470-488, 2008.

T. He, B. B. Lamont, and B. Fogliani, Pre-Gondwanan-breakup origin of Beauprea (Proteaceae) explains its historical presence in New Caledonia and New Zealand, Sci. Adv, vol.2, p.1501648, 2016.

J. Murienne, G. Edgecombe, and G. Giribet, Comparative phylogeography of the centipedes Cryptops pictus and C. niuensis (Chilopoda) in New Caledonia, Fiji and Vanuatu, Org. Divers. Evol, vol.11, pp.61-74, 2011.

P. P. Sharma and G. Giribet, Out of the Neotropics: Late Cretaceous colonization of Australasia by American arthropods, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. rspb20120675, 2012.

A. Papadopoulou, A. Cardoso, and J. Gómez-zurita, Diversity and diversification of Eumolpinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in New Caledonia, Zool. J. Linn. Soc, vol.168, pp.473-495, 2013.

G. W. Gibbs, D. C. Lees, E. Guilbert, T. Robillard, and H. Jourdan, & Grandcolas P. Zool. Neocaledonica 8. Mém. Mus. nat. Hist. nat, vol.206, pp.239-266, 2014.

P. Morat, T. Jaffré, J. M. Veillon, and H. S. Mackee, Affinités floristiques et considérations sur l' origine des maquis miniers de la, Adansonia, vol.2, pp.133-182, 1986.

J. Anso, Old Lineage on an old island: Pixibinthus, a new cricket genus endemic to New Caledonia shed light on gryllid diversification in a hotspot of biodiversity, PLoS ONE, vol.11, p.150920, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02096383

V. Poncet, Phylogeography and niche modelling of the relict plant Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae) reveal multiple Pleistocene refugia in New Caledonia, Mol. Ecol, vol.22, pp.6163-6178, 2013.

J. F. Genise, Asthenopodichnium in fossil wood: Different trace makers as indicators of different terrestrial palaeoenvironments, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol, pp.184-191, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00847359

P. Maurizot and M. Vendé-leclerc, New Caledonia geological map, scale 1/500000. (Direction de l'Industrie, Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières. Explanatory note by Maurizot P. and Collot J, 2009.

S. A. Magallon, Dating lineages: Molecular and paleontological approaches to the temporal framework of clades, Int. J. Plant Sci, vol.165, pp.7-21, 2004.

C. R. Marshall, A. E. Wiens, and E. M. Whitlock, A simple method for bracketing absolute divergence times on molecular phylogenies using multiple fossil calibration points, Am. Nat, vol.171, pp.726-742, 2008.

S. Y. Ho and M. J. Phillips, Accounting for calibration uncertainty in phylogenetic estimation of evolutionary divergence times, Syst. Biol, vol.58, pp.367-380, 2009.

S. Cody, J. E. Richardson, V. Rull, C. Ellis, and R. T. Pennington, The Great American Biotic Interchange revisited, Ecography, vol.33, pp.326-332, 2010.

J. Strandberg and K. A. Johanson, The historical biogeography of Apsilochorema (Trichoptera, Hydrobiosidae) revised, following molecular studies, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res, vol.49, pp.110-118, 2011.

R. S. Jabaily, Historical biogeography of the predominantly Australian plant family Goodeniaceae, J. Biogeogr, vol.41, pp.2057-2067, 2014.

A. S. Papadopulos, Speciation with gene flow on Lord Howe Island, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.108, pp.13188-93, 2011.

A. Lucky, Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the spider ants, genus Leptomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, vol.59, pp.281-292, 2011.

R. Nattier, Climate and Soil Type Together Explain the Distribution of Microendemic Species in a Biodiversity Hotspot, PLoS ONE, vol.8, issue.12, 2013.

S. J. Wagstaff, Origin, Diversification, and Classification of the Australasian Genus Dracophyllum (Richeeae, Ericaceae), Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard, vol.97, pp.235-258, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00504966

G. Keppel, Diversification history and hybridisation of Dacrydium (Podocarpaceae) in remote Oceania, Aust. J. Bot, vol.59, pp.262-273, 2011.

A. H. Thornhill, S. Y. Ho, C. Külheim, and M. D. Crisp, Interpreting the modern distribution of Myrtaceae using a dated molecular phylogeny, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, vol.93, pp.29-43, 2015.

L. Barrabé, New Caledonian lineages of Psychotria (Rubiaceae) reveal different evolutionary histories and the largest documented plant radiation for the archipelago, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, vol.71, pp.15-35, 2014.

B. Turner, Molecular phylogenetics of New Caledonian Diospyros (Ebenaceae) using plastid and nuclear markers, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, vol.69, pp.740-763, 2013.

Y. Pillon, H. C. Hopkins, F. Rigault, T. Jaffré, and E. A. Stacy, Cryptic adaptive radiation in tropical forest trees in New Caledonia, New Phytol, vol.202, pp.521-530, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02073669

M. A. Sundue, Global phylogeny and biogeography of grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, vol.81, pp.195-206, 2014.

M. J. Bayly, G. D. Holmes, P. I. Forster, D. J. Cantrill, and P. Y. Ladiges, Major Clades of Australasian Rutoideae (Rutaceae) Based on rbc L and atp B Sequences, PLOS ONE, vol.8, p.72493, 2013.

P. Arensburger, T. R. Buckley, C. Simon, M. Moulds, and K. E. Holsinger, Biogeography and phylogeny of the New Zealand cicada genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data, J. Biogeogr, vol.31, pp.557-569, 2004.

A. Lucky and E. M. Sarnat, Biogeography and diversification of the Pacific ant genus Lordomyrma Emery, J. Biogeogr, vol.37, pp.624-634, 2010.

E. M. Sarnat and C. S. Moreau, Biogeography and morphological evolution in a Pacific island ant radiation, Mol. Ecol, vol.20, pp.114-130, 2011.

M. Balke, G. Wewalka, Y. Alarie, and I. Ribera, Molecular phylogeny of Pacific Island Colymbetinae: radiation of New Caledonian and Fijian species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae), Zool. Scr, vol.36, pp.173-200, 2007.

P. M. Oliver and K. L. Sanders, Molecular evidence for Gondwanan origins of multiple lineages within a diverse Australasian gecko radiation, J. Biogeogr, vol.36, pp.2044-2055, 2009.

E. F. Toussaint, Unveiling the Diversification Dynamics of Australasian Predaceous Diving Beetles in the Cenozoic, Syst. Biol, vol.64, pp.3-24, 2015.

M. Balke, J. Pons, I. Ribera, K. Sagata, and A. P. Vogler, Infrequent and unidirectional colonization of hyperdiverse Papuadytes diving beetles in New Caledonia and New Guinea, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, vol.42, pp.505-516, 2007.

Z. Gomez, Discovery of new species of New Caledonian Arsipoda Erichson, 1842 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and insights on their ecology and evolution using DNA markers, J. Nat. Hist, vol.44, pp.2557-2579, 2010.

N. Thomas, J. J. Bruhl, A. Ford, and P. H. Weston, Molecular dating of Winteraceae reveals a complex biogeographical history involving both ancient Gondwanan vicariance and long-distance dispersal, J. Biogeogr, vol.41, pp.894-904, 2014.

H. Sauquet, Testing the impact of calibration on molecular divergence times using a fossil-rich group: the case of Nothofagus (Fagales), Syst. Biol, vol.61, pp.289-313, 2012.

A. Kawakita and M. Kato, Repeated independent evolution of obligate pollination mutualism in the Phyllantheae-Epicephala association, Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci, vol.276, pp.417-426, 2009.

P. L. Skipwith, A. M. Bauer, T. R. Jackman, and R. A. Sadlier, Old but not ancient: coalescent species tree of New Caledonian geckos reveals recent post-inundation diversification, J. Biogeogr, vol.43, pp.1266-1276, 2016.

M. Espeland and K. A. Johanson, The diversity and radiation of the largest monophyletic animal group on New Caledonia (Trichoptera: Ecnomidae: Agmina), J. Evol. Biol, vol.23, pp.2112-2122, 2010.

I. V. Bartish, A. Antonelli, J. E. Richardson, and U. Swenson, Vicariance or long distance dispersal: historical biogeography of the pantropical subfamily Chrysophylloideae (Sapotaceae), J. Biogeogr, vol.38, pp.177-190, 2011.

, Scientific RepoRts |, vol.7

S. Zielske and M. Haase, Molecular phylogeny and a modified approach of character-based barcoding refining the taxonomy of New Caledonian freshwater gastropods (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea, Tateidae), Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, vol.89, pp.171-181, 2015.

A. N. Nicolas and G. M. Plunkett, Diversification Times and Biogeographic Patterns in Apiales, Bot. Rev, vol.80, pp.30-58, 2014.

M. Espeland and K. A. Johanson, The effect of environmental diversification on species diversification in New Caledonian caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae), J. Biogeogr, vol.37, pp.879-890, 2010.

T. R. Buckley, D. Attanayake, J. A. Nylander, and S. Bradler, The phylogenetic placement and biogeographical origins of the New Zealand stick insects (Phasmatodea), Syst. Entomol, vol.35, pp.207-225, 2010.

G. Giribet, Evolutionary and biogeographical history of an ancient and global group of arachnids (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi) with a new taxonomic arrangement, Biol. J. Linn. Soc, vol.105, pp.92-130, 2012.