A. A. Agrawal, J. K. Conner, and S. Rasmann, Tradeoffs and negative correlations in evolutionary ecology, Evolution after Darwin: The first 150 years, 2010.

H. Akaike, A new look at the statistical model identification, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol.19, issue.6, pp.716-723, 1974.

L. M. Aubry, E. Cam, D. N. Koons, J. Y. Monnat, and S. Pavard, Drivers of age-specific survival in a long-lived seabird: Contributions of observed and hidden sources of heterogeneity, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.80, issue.2, pp.375-383, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00697825

J. J. Boonekamp, M. Salomons, S. Bouwhuis, C. Dijkstra, and S. Verhulst, Reproductive effort accelerates actuarial senescence in wild birds: An experimental study, Ecology Letters, vol.17, issue.5, pp.599-605, 2014.

K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model selection and inference: A practical information-theoretic approach, 1998.

E. Cam, W. A. Link, E. G. Cooch, J. Monnat, and E. Danchin, Individual covariation in life-history traits: Seeing the trees despite the forest, The American Naturalist, vol.159, issue.1, pp.96-105, 2002.

C. I. Canale, E. Huchard, M. Perret, and P. Henry, Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate, PLoS One, vol.7, issue.7, 2012.

E. L. Charnov, Reproductive effort, offspring size and benefitcost ratios in the classification of life histories, Evolutionary Ecology Research, vol.4, issue.5, pp.749-758, 2002.

M. L. Cody, A general theory of clutch size, Evolution, vol.20, issue.2, pp.174-184, 1966.

J. K. Conner, Quantitative genetic approaches to evolutionary constraint: How useful? Evolution, vol.66, pp.3313-3320, 2012.

D. R. Cox, Regression models and life-tables, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B (Methodological), vol.34, issue.2, pp.187-220, 1972.

H. Froy, C. A. Walling, J. M. Pemberton, T. H. Clutton-brock, and L. E. Loeske, Relative costs of offspring sex and offspring survival in a polygynous mammal, Biology Letters, vol.12, issue.9, 2016.

L. M. Garcia-segura, I. Azcoitia, and L. L. Doncarlos, Neuroprotection by estradiol, Progress in Neurobiology, vol.63, pp.25-28, 2001.

A. Garnier, J. M. Gaillard, D. Gauthier, and A. Besnard, What shapes fitness costs of reproduction in long-lived iteroparous species? A case study on the Alpine ibex, Ecology, vol.97, issue.1, pp.205-214, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02012368

M. Garratt, A. Vasilaki, P. Stockley, F. Mcardle, M. Jackson et al., Is oxidative stress a physiological cost of reproduction? An experimental test in house mice, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol.278, pp.1098-1106, 2011.

S. Hamel, S. D. Côté, and M. Festa-bianchet, Maternal characteristics and environment affect the costs of reproduction in female mountain goats, Ecology, issue.7, pp.2034-2043, 2010.

S. Hamel, S. D. Côté, J. Gaillard, and M. Festa-bianchet, Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: Highquality females always do better, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.78, issue.1, pp.143-151, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00428314

D. Houle, Genetic covariance of fitness correlates: What genetic correlations are made of and why it matters, Evolution, vol.45, issue.3, pp.630-648, 1991.

E. Huchard, C. I. Canale, C. Le-gros, M. Perret, P. Henry et al., Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, vol.279, pp.1371-1379, 2012.

J. Jiang, J. S. Rao, Z. Gu, and T. Nguyen, Fence methods for mixed model selection, The Annals of Statistics, vol.36, issue.4, pp.1669-1692, 2008.

S. S. Kengeri, A. H. Maras, C. L. Suckow, E. C. Chiang, and D. J. Waters, Exceptional longevity in female Rottweiler dogs is not encumbered by investment in reproduction, Age (Dordr), vol.35, issue.6, pp.2503-2513, 2013.

E. G. King, D. A. Roff, and D. J. Fairbairn, Trade-off acquisition and allocation in Gryllus firmus: A test of the Y model, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.24, issue.2, pp.256-264, 2011.

J. P. Klein and M. Moeschberger, Survival analysis: Techniques for censored and truncated data, 2003.

S. B. Kroeger, D. T. Blumstein, K. B. Armitage, J. M. Reid, and J. G. Martin, Cumulative reproductive costs on current reproduction in a wild polytocous mammal, Ecology and Evolution, vol.8, issue.23, pp.11543-11553, 2018.

J. Landes, M. Perret, I. Hardy, C. Camarda, P. Henry et al., State transitions: A major mortality risk for seasonal species, Ecology Letters, vol.20, issue.7, pp.883-891, 2017.

S. Languille, S. Blanc, O. Blin, C. I. Canale, A. Dal-pan et al., The grey mouse lemur: A non-human primate model for ageing studies, Ageing Research Reviews, vol.11, issue.1, pp.150-162, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00650159

R. Law, Optimal life histories under age-specific predation, The American Naturalist, vol.114, issue.3, pp.399-417, 1979.

J. Lemaître, V. Berger, C. Bonenfant, M. Douhard, M. Gamelon et al., Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.282, 1806.

J. F. Lemaitre, J. Gaillard, L. B. Lackey, M. Clauss, and D. W. Muller, Comparing free-ranging and captive populations reveals intra-specific variation in aging rates in large herbivores, Experimental Gerontology, vol.48, issue.2, pp.162-167, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02281572

M. Linden and A. P. Møller, Cost of reproduction and covariation of life history traits in birds, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.4, issue.12, pp.90101-90109, 1989.

C. J. Metcalf, Invisible trade-offs: Van Noordwijk and de Jong and life-history evolution, The American Naturalist, vol.187, issue.4, 2016.

L. O?dakowski, Z. Piotrowska, K. M. Chrz??cik, E. T. Sadowska, P. Koteja et al., Is reproduction costly? No increase of oxidative damage in breeding bank voles, The Journal of Experimental Biology, vol.215, pp.1799-1805, 2012.

M. Perret, Reproduction saisonnière et succès reproducteur chez un prosimien malgache, Microcebus murinus, Primatologie, vol.3, pp.45-84, 2000.

M. Perret and F. Aujard, Regulation by photoperiod of seasonal changes in body mass and reproductive function in gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus): Differential responses by sex, International Journal of Primatology, vol.22, pp.5-24, 2001.

F. Plard, J. Gaillard, T. Coulson, D. Delorme, C. Warnant et al., Quantifying the influence of measured and unmeasured individual differences on demography, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.84, pp.1434-1445, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02018991

R. , R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2011.

D. Reznick, Costs of reproduction: An evaluation of the empirical evidence, Oikos, vol.44, issue.2, pp.257-267, 1985.

R. E. Ricklefs and C. D. Cadena, Lifespan is unrelated to investment in reproduction in populations of mammals and birds in captivity, Ecology Letters, vol.10, issue.10, pp.867-872, 2007.

E. S. Santos and S. Nakagawa, The costs of parental care: A meta-analysis of the trade-off between parental effort and survival in birds, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.25, issue.9, pp.1911-1917, 2012.

M. Singh, Progesterone-induced neuroprotection, Endocrine, vol.29, issue.2, pp.271-274, 2006.

N. Sletvold and J. Agren, Climate-dependent costs of reproduction: Survival and fecundity costs decline with length of the growing season and summer temperature, Ecology Letters, vol.18, issue.4, pp.357-364, 2015.

S. C. Stearns, Trade-offs in life-history evolution, Functional Ecology, vol.3, pp.259-268, 1989.

J. J. Tarin, V. Gomez-piquer, S. Garcia-palomares, M. A. Garcia-perez, and A. Cano, Absence of long-term effects of reproduction on longevity in the mouse model, Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol.12, issue.1, 2014.

G. Tavecchia, T. Coulson, B. J. Morgan, J. M. Pemberton, J. C. Pilkington et al., Predictors of reproductive cost in female Soay sheep, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.74, issue.2, pp.201-213, 2005.

J. Terrien, M. Gaudubois, D. Champeval, V. Zaninotto, L. Roger et al., Metabolic and genomic adaptations to winter fattening in a primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), International Journal of Obesity, vol.42, issue.2, pp.221-230, 2017.

L. Thalib, S. A. Doi, and P. Hall, Multiple births and breast cancer prognosis: A population based study, European Journal of Epidemiology, vol.20, issue.7, pp.613-617, 2005.

T. M. Therneau and P. M. Grambsch, Modeling survival data: Extending the Cox model, 2000.

M. Tidière, J. Lemaître, G. Douay, M. Whipple, and J. Gaillard, High reproductive effort is associated with decreasing mortality late in life in captive ruffed lemurs, American Journal of Primatology, vol.79, issue.9, 2017.

A. J. Van-noordwijk and G. Jong, Acquisition and allocation of resources: Their influence on variation in life history tactics, The American Naturalist, vol.128, issue.1, pp.137-142, 1986.

G. C. Williams, Natural selection, the costs of reproduction, and a refinement of Lack's principle, The American Naturalist, vol.100, pp.687-690, 1966.

S. Fo-r-m-ati-o-n, Additional supporting information may be found online in the Supporting Information section at the end of the article. How to cite this article, Ecol Evol, vol.9, pp.6189-6198, 2019.