F. Bairlein, How do migratory songbirds cross the Sahara?, Trends Ecol. Evol, vol.3, pp.191-194, 1988.

I. Newton, The Migration Ecology of Birds, 2008.

H. Schmaljohann, F. Liechti, and B. Bruderer, Songbird migration across the Sahara-the non-stop hypothesis rejected, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, vol.274, pp.735-739, 2007.

B. J. Stutchbury, Tracking long-distance songbird migration by using geolocators, Science, vol.323, p.896, 2009.

J. Ouwehand and C. Both, Alternate non-stop migration strategies of pied flycatchers to cross the Sahara desert, Biol. Lett, vol.12, p.20151060, 2016.

F. Bairlein, Cross-hemisphere migration of a 25 g songbird, Biol. Lett, vol.8, pp.505-507, 2012.

W. V. Deluca, Transoceanic migration by a 12 g songbird, Biol. Lett, vol.11, p.20141045, 2015.

H. Schmaljohann, F. Liechti, and B. Bruderer, Daytime passerine migrants over the Sahara -are these diurnal migrants or prolonged flights of nocturnal migrants?, Ostrich, vol.78, pp.357-362, 2007.

P. Adamik, Barrier crossing in small avian migrants: individual tracking reveals prolonged nocturnal flights into the day as a common migratory strategy, Scientific Reports, vol.6, p.21560, 2016.

H. Schmaljohann, F. Liechti, and B. Bruderer, Trans-Sahara migrants select flight altitudes to minimize energy costs rather than water loss, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol, vol.63, pp.1609-1619, 2009.

F. Liechti, Miniaturized multi-sensor loggers provide new insight into year-round flight behaviour of small trans-Sahara avian migrants, Movement Ecol, vol.6, p.19, 2018.

A. M. Dokter, Bird migration flight altitudes studied by a network of operational weather radars, J. R. Soc. Interface, vol.8, pp.30-43, 2011.

S. Lisovski and S. Hahn, GeoLight -processing and analysing light-based geolocator data in R, Methods Ecol. Evol, vol.3, pp.1055-1059, 2012.

F. Jiguet, Unravelling migration connectivity reveals unsustainable hunting of the declining ortolan bunting, Sci. Adv, vol.5, p.2642, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/mnhn-02552952

U. Olsson, Disagreement between morphological and molecular evidence and cryptic divergence: A case for resurrecting Calamoherpe ambigua Brehm 1857, Mol. Phyl. Evol, vol.102, pp.30-44, 2016.

C. Nillson, R. H. Klaassen, and T. Alerstam, Differences in speed and duration of bird migration between spring and autumn, Am. Nat, vol.181, pp.837-845, 2013.

S. Jenni-eiermann, Numbers, foraging and refueling of passerine migrants at a stopover site in the western Sahara: diverse strategies to cross a desert, J. Ornithol, vol.152, pp.113-128, 2011.

J. Arizaga, I. Maggini, F. Hama, A. C. Diaz, and G. Gargallo, Site-and species-specific fuel load of European-Afrotropical passerines on arrival at three oases of South-East Morocco during spring migration, Bird Study, vol.60, pp.11-21, 2013.

E. A. Riddell, K. J. Iknayan, B. O. Wolf, B. Sinervo, and S. R. Beissinger, Cooling requirements fueled the collapse of a desert bird community from climate change, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol.116, pp.21609-21615, 2019.

F. Bairlein, Recent prospects on trans-Saharan migration of songbirds, Ibis, vol.134, pp.41-46, 1992.

M. Schaub and L. Jenni, Body mass of six long-distance migrant passerine species along the autumn migration route, J. Ornithol, vol.141, pp.441-460, 2000.

H. Biebach, Sahara stopover in migratory flycatchers: fat and food affect the time program, Experientia, vol.4, pp.695-697, 1985.

A. R. Gerson and C. G. Guglielmo, Flight at low ambient humidity increases protein catabolism in migratory birds, Science, vol.333, pp.1434-1436, 2011.

P. Markowski and Y. Richardson, Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes, vol.407, 2010.

B. Bruderer, D. Peter, and F. Korner-nievergelt, Vertical distribution of bird migration between the Baltic Sea and the Sahara, J. Ornithol, vol.159, p.315, 2018.

S. Åkesson, G. Bianco, and A. Hedenström, Negotiating an ecological barrier: crossing the Sahara in relation to winds by common swifts, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci, vol.371, p.2015039, 2016.

B. Bruderer and D. Peter, Windprofit favouring extreme altitudes of bird migration, Ornithol. Beob, vol.114, pp.73-86, 2017.

K. H. Cook and E. K. Vizy, Detection and Analysis of an Amplified Warming of the Sahara Desert, J. Clim, vol.28, pp.6560-6580, 2015.

. Ipcc and . Climate, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Synthesis Report, 2014.

M. Hulme, R. Doherty, T. Ngara, M. New, and D. Lister, African climate change: 1900-2100, Clim. Res, vol.17, pp.145-168, 2001.

J. B. Williams, M. Shobrak, T. M. Wilms, I. A. Arif, and H. A. Khan, Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia, Saudi J. Biol. Sci, vol.19, pp.121-130, 2012.

N. Thomas and S. Nigam, Twentieth-Century Climate Change over Africa: Seasonal Hydroclimate Trends and Sahara Desert Expansion, J. Clim, vol.31, pp.3349-3370, 2018.

J. Pons, The role of western Mediterranean islands in the evolutionary diversification of the spotted flycatcher Muscicapa striata, a long-distance migratory passerine species, J. Avian Biol, vol.47, pp.386-398, 2016.

M. L. Vega, Migration strategies of iberian breeding white-rumped swifts Apus caffer, rufous-tailed scrub-robins Cercotrichas galactotes and bluethroats Cyanecula svecica, Ardeola, vol.66, pp.51-64, 2019.

M. Lerche-jørgensen, M. Willemoes, A. P. Tøttrup, K. R. Snell, and K. Thorup, No apparent gain from continuing migration for more than 3000 kilometres: willow warblers breeding in Denmark winter across the entire northern Savannah as revealed by geolocators, Mov. Ecol, vol.5, p.17, 2017.