, segment apex and costa, almost pinnatisect, pinnatisect basally, basal segments as long or longer than the next, apex attenuate or acute; ultimate segments 12-22 pairs, (1.7) 2.5-8.1 mm wide, entire or serrate, apex rounded or acute, margin with catenate trichomes, the distance from each other is narrower than segments width; veins simple or 1-2-forked, 6-9 pairs (before forking) per segment, the basal ones from adjacent segments end at margin well above the sinus; sori medial, indusia absent, or small and incospicuous or large and conspicuous, entire, with bacilliform trichomes; spores with coarse, irregular echinae, p.215, 1944.

. Bolivia and . Beni, Moxos, Chimanes Forest, 260 m, 15°10' S, 66°37' W, p.2810, 1990.

. Yacuma, . Campamento-campo-monos, and C. Río, , p.17

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. 19°48'-s,-63°57'-w, Huaylla & Wendelberger, vol.7, 2000.

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, Gutiérrez, p.1011, 2004.

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. Vallegrande, UC, p.5926, 1200.

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. Colombia and . Cundinamarca, Gachetá, En el Cemeterio, 1750 m, 4°55'15" N, 73°36'48" W, p.403, 1974.

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. Ecuador and . Andes, Cotopaxi: Quevedo-Latacunga road, km 46 from Quevedo, ca. 600 m, 00º55'S, 79º11'W, 1973, Homl-Nielsen 2904 (UC); Galapagos: Santa Cruz island, Spruce 5256A (NY), vol.430, p.95, 1857.

. Morona-santiago, C. Morona, and &. De-cutucú, Palacios et al. 15792 (UC); Pichincha: Hotel Tinalandia, casi 25 km al este desde Sto. Domingo de los Colorados, Tungurahua: Baños, Downhill, 1450 m, 1°24' S, 78°17' W, vol.3542, p.3568, 1984.

. Peru and . Huánuco, Leoncio Prado, p.865, 1400.

:. Junín, V. Tarma, and C. Del-río, , p.671, 1500.

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. Venezuela and . Anzoátegui, , p.61279, 1945.

:. Aragua and . Tovar, , p.204, 1854.

:. Lara, V. Torres, S. El-jabón, L. Denominado, and . Raya, Rivero, vol.86613, 1500.

M. Island, ;. Cuba, . Jamaica, T. ). Hispaniola, and S. America, Bolivia and Argentina; Fig. 14B; Tab. 01). Notes:-Ctenitis ampla is a 2-4-pinnate-pinnatifid species (Fig. 03C), similar to C. equestris var. equestris, C. grisebachii and other decompound lamina species from Mesoamerica and West Indies. Ctenitis ampla and C. equestris var. equestris scales are flaccid, clathrate, flattish or vaulted with cordate base, with or without some short fimbriae at base and laterally, but the C. ampla ones are uniformly light castaneous or castaneous (Fig. 06A-B), while C. equestris scales are brownish with pale edges (Fig. 17B), often iridescent. Ctenitis grisebachii has stiff uniformly castaneous or brown, always flattish scales with truncate base and without fimbriae (Fig. 19G), the ones along petiole and rachis are usually retrorse, Miller & Johnston 169 (NY). Habitat and distribution:-Terrestrial in rainforest in low or highlands, 0-2000 m. United States of America (Florida), 1901.

R. Camacan and . Bonita, 850 m, 15°23'30" S, 39°33'55" W, 2007.

R. Jussari and . Jussari, Mynssen et al, vol.919, 2005.

E. Santo, Cariacica, Reserva Biológica Duas Bocas

. Labiak, , p.4647, 2008.

S. Teresa, N. Lombardia, R. Biológica, and A. Ruschi, , p.21

, Krause & Pereira, vol.83, 2003.

M. Gerais, , vol.396, 1933.

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. Juiz-de-fora, D. Poço, and . Anta, , vol.889, p.14791, 1902.

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R. Preto, S. Negra, and F. Tiririca, , 2006.

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M. Cachoeiras-de, , 2009.

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. Serra-de-itapetinga, Brade, vol.7399, 1914.

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E. Santo, Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, Floresta Nacional de Pacotuba, 115 m, 20°44'19" S, 41°16'39" W, p.14573, 2009.

P. E. Castelo and . Mata-das-flores, , 2008.

J. Itarana, Fazenda do Sr. Stur, 274 m, 19°57'30" S, 40°53'09" W, 2009.

F. Linhares and . Nacional-de-goytacazes, , 2008.

N. Venécia, F. Da-pedra-do-elefante, and . Neblina,

, Labiak et al, vol.5122, 2009.

. Pinheiros, Reserva Biológica do Córrego do Veado, 50 m, 18°22'13" S, 40°09'26, 2009.

R. Sooretama, . Biológica-de, and . Sooretama, , 2008.

M. Gerais, Governador Valadares, Campo de Sementes, Magalhães, vol.825, 1941.

F. Juiz-de, , p.29

P. Marliéria and . Estadual-do-rio-doce, , 1996.

F. S. Sobrália and . Luzia,

, Salino, vol.9698, 2004.

F. Tombos and . Da-cachoeira, , p.1526, 1935.

R. Pomba, , 1909.

J. Rio-de, Cambuci, Três Irmãos, 1949.

M. Campos-dos-goytacazes, M. Do-coco, and . Da-solidão, Mynssen et al, vol.875, 2005.

;. Saquarema and . Bello, Habitat and distribution:-Terrestrial or rarely epipetric in semideciduous forest and rainforest, especially "tabuleiro" forest, 15-790 m. Endemic to northeastern and southeastern Brazil, 2014.

, Notes:-Ctenitis christensenii can be recognized mainly by its sparse castaneous linear-lanceolate scales on costa abaxially with truncate or rounded base, laminar surface between veins abaxially glabrous or with sparse bacilliform and filiform trichomes, adaxially glabrous, and indusia entire with bacilliform trichomes. Such morphological characters of C. christensenii and comparison notes with the most similar species (C. bigarellae and C. paranaensis) to it are in Viveros & Salino, 2015.

, Dryopteris deflexa (Kaulf.) Christensen (1906: 261). Type:-BRAZIL. Hab, Ctenitis deflexa (Kaulf.) Copeland (1947: 124). Figs. 09F, 13F-H, 16C. Polypodium deflexum Kaulfuss

, Parque Nacional da Tijuca, 22º56'48"S, 43º44'37''W, 726 m, 2012.

R. Polypodium-vestitum, Type:-BRAZIL, nom. illeg., non Forster (1786: 82), non Hooker (1862: 271), nom. illeg., non Philipp in Iohow (1892: 995), nom. illeg. Nephrodium vestitum (Raddi) Baker in Hooker & Baker (1868: 265). Aspidium raddianum Mettenius (1858: 91), non Aspidium vestitum Swartz (1801: 37). Nephrodium raddianum (Mett.) Hooker (1862: 98), vol.1819, p.288, 2005.

, Type:-BRAZIL, Aspidium basilare Fée (1869: 135)

, Type:-BRAZIL, Phegopteris fluminensis Fée (1869: 97)

, Type:-BRAZIL, Espírito Santo. Minas Strasse, vol.1816, p.99, 1913.

R. S. Ctenitis, . Viveros, ;. Salino, and . Santo, Figs. 06B, 10A, 20C. Type, 2008.

, mm, castaneous, subclathrate, lanceolate, entire or slightly denticulate, without fimbriae; , castaneous, subclathrate, tangled on petiole base, becoming patent or ascending towards distal portion, flattish, flaccid, lanceolate with cordate base and filiform apex, entire or slightly denticulate, with or without some short fimbriae at base and laterally, sparse catenate trichomes abaxially, sparse glandular trichomes; laminae 39-59 × 17-28 cm, width ca. 1/2 of its length, sometimes somewhat narrower or wider, 1-pinnate-pinnatisect basally, 1-pinnate-pinnatifid medially and apically, lanceolate, apex confluent; rachises brownish or tan, scales like those on distal portion of petioles, sparse catenate trichomes abaxially, sparse glandular trichomes; pinnae 14-25 pairs, the basal and medial ones stalked 12.0 mm long, the apical ones sessile, basal pinnae basiscopically and acroscopically somewhat equally developed, the medial 8.5-14.0 × 1.5-2.7 cm, lanceolate, incised more than 3/4 of the distance between the segment apex and costa, basal segments as long or longer than the next, apex acute or attenuate

, adaxial laminar surface between veins glabrous or with sparse catenate, bacilliform and glandular trichomes

, clathrate, ascending, mostly flattish, but can be vaulted at base, flaccid, lanceolate with cordate base and filiform apex, entire or slightly denticulate, without fimbriae, proscales to 1.0 mm long sparse on costa and costule, catenate trichomes sparse on costa, costule and veins, bacilliform trichomes sparse on costule and veins, glandular trichomes sparse on costa, costule and veins, filiform trichomes absent; abaxial laminar surface between veins with sparse catenate, bacilliform and glandular trichomes; segments 14-18 pairs, 2.8-5.3 mm wide, patent or subfalcate, entire to repand (smaller individuals) or crenate to serrate (larger individuals) towards apex, apex obtuse, margin with catenate trichomes, the distance from each other is narrower than segments width; veins simple or 1-forked at basal segments, 6-12 pairs per segment, the basal ones from adjacent segments end at margin well above the sinus; sori medial or supramedial, indusia conspicuous, entire, with glandular trichomes; spores with coarse folds, 2006.

. Prado, Parque Nacional do Descobrimento, 50 m, 16°59'21" S, 39°23'17" W, p.8132, 2002.

S. Teresinha-;-m,-12°45'-s,-39°32'-w, Noblick & Lemos, vol.3745, pp.750-800, 1985.

E. Santo, :. Aracruz, and S. Cruz, , p.1156, 1976.

P. Cachoeiro-de-itapemirim and . Branca, , vol.100, 1949.

P. Ibitirama, . Nacional, and . Caparaó, , 2011.

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, Minas Gerais: Carangola, Fazenda Boa Vista, vol.818, 1989.

F. Distrito-de-ilhéu and . Da-tabunha, Pernambuco: Bonito, Mata da Colônia, 800 m, 08º30'14"S, 35º42'56"W, BHCB), 1930.

U. Jaqueira, . Colônia, and . Mata-da-turbina, Lopes & Pietrobom, vol.583, 2002.

J. Rio-de, Macáe, Frade de Macahé, p.15797, 1937.

R. Mangaratiba and . Ecológica-rio-das-pedras, , 1998.

P. Paraty and . Negra, BHCB, 2006.

. Teresópolis, Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, 2012.

S. Paulo, :. Bernardo-do-campo, and R. Grande, Loefgren, s.n. (NY, 1958.

P. Grande, Loefgren, vol.4677, 1898.

. Ubatuba and . Estrada-que-desce-para-o-cedro, , p.2534, 1996.

;. Guyana.-region-potaro-siparuni and . Henkel, Habitat and distribution:-Terrestrial, mainly in semideciduous and rainforests in mountainous areas, 30-1780 m. Guyana and northeastern to southeastern Brazil, 19. Ctenitis nervata (Fée) R.S. Viveros & Salino (2017: 320). Figs. 02D, 10F, 22A-B, 23D. Aspidium nervatum Fée (1869: 136). Type:-BRAZIL, 1982.

C. Aspidium-pedicellatum, Ctenitis pedicellata (Christ) Copeland (1947: 124). Type:-BRAZIL. São Paulo, Wettstein & Schiffner s.n. (lectotype P 00170056!, 1908.

. Uc! and . Ny!, Type:-BRAZIL. Santa Catarina: Perabeiraba, Stier s.n. [Herb. Rosenstock 50] (lectotype S05-11103! designated by Viveros & Salino 2017); remaining syntypes, Dryopteris indecora Rosenstock (1906: 117)

, mm, dark brown to blackish, subclathrate, not tangled on petiole base, patent or ascending, flattish, stiff, lanceolate with truncate base and attenuate apex, entire, without fimbriae, sparse catenate trichomes abaxially, glandular trichomes absent; laminae 24-68 × 14-31 cm, width ca. 1/2 of length or wider, 1-pinnate-pinnatifid basally, medially and apically, lanceolate or ovate, apex confluent; rachises brownish, scales like those on distal portion of petioles, sparse catenate trichomes abaxially, glandular trichomes absent; pinnae 8-16 pairs, the basal and medial ones stalked to 7.4 mm long, the apical ones sessile, basal pinnae basiscopically and acroscopically somewhat equally developed, the medial 6.9-16 cm × 1.8-3.5 cm, lanceolate, incised 1/2-2/3 of the distance between the segment apex and costa, basal segments shorter than the next, apex acuminate; adaxial pinnae axes scales absent, catenate trichomes dense on costa, bacilliform trichomes absent; , castaneous or dark brown, clathrate, ascending, flattish or twisted, flaccid to stiff, deltate or lanceolate with cordate base and attenuate or filiform apex, entire or slightly denticulate, with or without some short fimbriae at base and laterally, proscales to 1.9 mm long sparse on costule, rare on veins, catenate trichomes absent, bacilliform trichomes absent, glandular trichomes absent, filiform trichomes absent; abaxial laminar surface between veins glabrous; segments 17-21 pairs, 3.7-7.2 mm wide, patent or subfalcate, entire, apex truncate or obtuse, margin with catenate trichomes (almost glabrous), the distance from each other is narrower than segments width; veins simple, 6-10 pairs per segment, the basal ones from adjacent segments reach the margin at sinus, sometimes one vein reaches the margin at sinus and the other ends before the margin towards the sinus, or two pairs of basal veins reach the margin at sinus; sori medial or inframedial, indusia absent; spores with coarse folds, with 6 vascular bundles at base, brownish, 2009.

. Pata, 1470 m, 14º37'44"S, 68º40'19"W, Fuentes & Paniagua, vol.5920, 2003.

S. Cruz:-valle-grande, 12 km de Loma Larga a Masicuri, 1300 m, 18º47'S, 63º51'W, Kessler, p.6071

. E. Brazil and . Santo, Cariacica, Reserva Biológica Duas Bocas, 600 m, 20°17'29" S, 40°31'10" W, vol.5175, 2009.

M. Grosso and ;. Dias-melo, 490 (RB); Paraná: Morretes, Estação Marumbi, Trilha do Rancho do Tião, 237 m, 10°58'15" S, 55°43'20" W, p.2701, 1986.

J. Rio-de, Mynssen & Bovini, vol.693, 2004.

. Itatiaia, Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, 1000 m, 20°26'17" S, 44°36'43" W, p.207, 2008.

M. Pereira, Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, 789 m, 22º32'39''S, 43º26'01, 2007.

J. Rio-de, Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, 22°32'39" S, 43°26'01" W, 11, 2007.

S. M. and M. , , p.1434, 1936.

S. Catarina, Reitz, vol.1004, 1945.

A. D. Blumenau and . Hering, 26°54'11" S, 49°07'09" W, vol.192, 2010.

. Brusque, Smith & Reitz, p.6131, 1952.

. Itapocu, , p.12935, 1897.

. Joinville, Müller 118a (RB), 1906.

S. Paulo, :. Iguape, and R. Guaviranga, , p.21448, 1921.

/. Iporanga and . Apiaí, Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira, Núcleo Caboclos, 24º32'22''S, 48º41'36, p.29

, Mazziero et al. 1022 (RB), 2012.

, Trilha da Pirapitinga, 900-950 m, 2001.

, NY, p.69, 1996.

M. Brazil and . Grosso, UC); Pará: Canaã dos Carajás, Serra do Tarzan, p.15575, 1977.

. Colombia and . Magdalena, Risaralda: Pereira, Hacienda Los Visos, Silverstone-Sopkin & Arroyo, vol.6295, 1898.

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:. Lara and . Jiménez, Davidse & Gonzáles 71020 (MO); Portuguesa: Ospino, 900 m, 9°28'30" N, 69°28'40" W, Parque Nacional Yacambú, 620-740 m, 9°41' N, 69°30' W, vol.19, pp.50-900, 1982.

(. Mesoamerica, . Mexico, . Belize, . Guatemala, E. Honduras et al., Notes:-Ctenitis nigrovenia is usually recognized by segments margin serrate and glabrous in a 1-pinnatepinnatifid to 1-pinnate-pinnatisect lamina. Some specimens from Costa Rica and Mexico are smaller and because of that, the segments are repand or entire. These specimens have already been recognized as a distinct species, named C. tonduzii, but the microscopic characters are the same, for example bacilliform trichomes on costula, vein and between veins abaxially (Fig. 22C). Despite the absence of catenate trichomes on segments margin, the following further characters also contribute to recognized C. nigrovenia: scales on costa abaxially dark brown to blackish, indusia conspicuous with bacilliform trichomes, or inconspicuous and reduced, remaining a tuft of bacilliform trichomes. Ctenitis nigrovenia is like C. abyssi and C. laetevirens (see both for differences

, One sheet of this collection is in P and another is in US. The one in P has a stamp of Christ's Herbarium. Christensen (1913a) informed that the types were in Christ Herbarium and in US. The collections of Christ, the author of N. nigrovenium, were incorporated by the Roland Bonaparte's herbarium, which was incorporated by P. Tryon & Stolze (1991) cited "P?" for the holotype and US for an isotype. Then, we consider this an inadvertent lectotypification and an error to be correct to lectotype

. Icn-mcneill, Christensen (1913a) had already considered this name as a synonym of Dryopteris nigrovenia, and he attributed the collection Moritz 204 as from Tovar in Venezuela, not Colombia, as mentioned in the protologue. Moritz collected plants in Colombia and also in Venezuela, but the protologue and the herbarium sheets we found do not mention the locality "Tovar, vol.9, 2012.

;. Christ and . Mcneill, Moran (1995) said that C. nigrovenia was too variable and that more collections were need to clarify if C. thelypteroides and C. tonduzii could be distinct from C. nigrovenia. Mickel and Smith (2004), however, still maintained C. thelypteroides as distinct, separating by the presence of indusia in opposition to an exindusiate sori in C. nigrovenia. However, the types of C. nigrovenia (N. nigrovenium) are indusiate. The types of C. tonduzii and C. thelypteroides are quite similar in leaf size and segments margin, which are not so perfectly serrate as the typical C. nigrovenia. Furthermore, after analyzing several specimens from South to Mesoamerica and West Indies, Tonduz 11333 for Aspidium tonduzii. Sheets of this were found in four herbaria. Supported by Art. 8.3, Rec. 8A.4, Art. 9.5, 9.12 and 40 Note 1 of ICN, 1901.

, FIGURE 25. Distribution of four taxa of Ctenitis in South America. A: C. nigrovenia. B: C. paranaensis. C: C. refulgens var. refulgens. D: C. refulgens var. peruviana

. Christensen, presents the name Aspidium deltoideum Fournier (1872: 93), non, vol.1788, p.133, 1913.

. Swartz, Annies s.n. (Herb. Rosentock 79) (lectotype S 05-11193!, designated by Viveros & Salino, as a synomym of Dryopteris nigrovenia. However, Fournier did not intend to describe a new species, he just cited the name A. deltoideum of Swartz with the voucher Bourgeau 1644 from Mexico, p.56, 1984.

, Type:-BRAZIL, Dryopteris falciculata (Raddi) Kuntze f. glabrata Hieronymus ex Christensen (1913a: 92)

, mm, light castaneous on petiole base, becoming dark brown to blackish on distal portion, subclathrate or clathrate, tangled on petiole base, becoming patent or ascending towards distal portion, flattish, flaccid, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate with truncate base and attenuate or filiform apex, entire, with or without short fimbriae at base, sparse catenate trichomes abaxially, glandular trichomes absent or sparse; laminae 22.8-41.5 × 13.2-22 cm, width ca. 1/2 of its length or somewhat wider, 1-pinnate-pinnatisect basally, 1-pinnatepinnatifid medially and apically, lanceolate or ovate

, 9-2.8 cm, lanceolate, incised more than 3/4 of the distance between segment apex and costa, basal segments as long as the next, apex attenuate; adaxial pinnae axes scales absent or sparse (large individuals) on costa, to 0.6 × 0.06 mm, dark brown, filiform, catenate trichomes, dense on costa, sparse on costule and veins, bacilliform trichomes absent; , dark brown or castaneous, clathrate, mostly flattish, but can be vaulted at base, flaccid, lanceolate with rounded or cordate base and filiform apex, entire or slightly denticulate, with or without some short fimbriae at base, proscales to 0.9 mm long sparse on costa and costule, catenate trichomes sparse on costa, costule and veins, bacilliform trichomes sparse or absent on costule and veins, glandular trichomes absent or sparse on costa, filiform trichomes absent; abaxial laminar surface between veins glabrous or with sparse catenate and bacilliform trichomes; segments (10) 16-31 pairs, 3.0-6.8 mm wide, patent or subfalcate, entire or repand, apex obtuse, margin with catenate trichomes, the distance from each other is narrower than segments width; veins simple or 1-forked, 7-10 pairs per segment, the basal ones from adjacent segments end at margin well above the sinus; sori medial or supramedial, indusia conspicuous or inconspicuous, entire, with catenate and bacilliform trichomes; spores with inflated and coarse folds, basal pinnae basiscopically and acroscopically somewhat equally developed, the medial 7.2-11.5 ×, vol.1, 1979.

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S. Paulo, Base do Carmo, 530 m, 24°18'24" S, 48°24'45" W, Iporanga, Parque Estadual Intervales, 2003.

. Itanhaém, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, 100-120 m, 24°09'59" S, 46°49'43" W, p.6603, 2001.

R. Grande, Bairro Boa Vista, Silva & Kersten s.n. (BHCB), 1997.

. Santos, , p.21122, 1915.

S. Paulo, C. Universitária, M. Da-reserva-de, and . Cuaso, , 1976.

P. Ubatuba and . Estadual-da-ilha-de-anchieta, Notes:-Ctenitis paranaensis can be recognized by rachis and costa abaxially with scales dark brown to blackish, entire or slightly denticulate, sparse catenate trichomes on abaxial costa and laminar surface between veins, and on the indusium, which is usually inconspicuous. The most similar species to C. paranaensis are C. falciculata, C. distans and C. submarginalis. See C. falciculata and C. distans notes for differences. Some morphological characters of C. paranaensis are illustrated in Viveros & Salino (2015). The scales of specimens from southern Bahia are more delicate and narrower, resembling C. submarginalis var. tenuifolia, except by the color (dark brown to blackish in C. paranaensis vs. light castaneous in C. submarginalis var. tenuifolia). Moreover, the petiole base of typical C. paranaensis has four vascular bundles, but the specimens from southern Bahia have six, Endemic to Atlantic Forest, 5-1600 m. Northeastern to southern Brazil, p.2564, 1996.

, Nephrodium refulgens (Klotzsch ex Mett.) Diels (1899: 170). Dryopteris refulgens (Klotzsch ex Mett.) Christensen (1906: 288). Type:-GUYANA, p.404, 1968.

M. , Lindig 382 (B 20 0064261!), vol.100, 1011.

, mm, light castaneous, subclathrate, tangled on petiole base, becoming patent or ascending towards distal portion, flattish, flaccid, linear with truncate base and filiform apex, entire, without fimbriae, sparse catenate trichomes abaxially, sparse glandular trichomes; laminae 33.5-67 × 21.5-35 cm, width 1/2-2/3 of length, 1-pinnate-pinnatifid basally, medially and apically, lanceolate or ovate, apex confluent; rachises stramineous or tan, scales like those on distal portion of petioles, sparse catenate trichomes abaxially, sparse glandular trichomes; pinnae 7-15 pairs, the basal and medial ones stalked to 3.8 mm long or sessile, the apical ones sessile, basal pinnae basiscopically and acroscopically somewhat equally developed, the medial 12.2-21.5 × 2.9-3.5 cm, lanceolate, incised ca. 1/2 (rarely to 2/3) of the distance between the segment apex and costa, basal segments as long or shorter than the next, apex attenuate, with 4 vascular bundles at base, stramineous or tan, 2009.

L. Paz, F); Pando: Manuripi, camino Cobja-Chivé, comunidad Holanda, entrando por el camino al puesto militar adelantando Dolores, antes de cruzar el rio Manurimi, 230 m, 11º47'S, 68º42'W, Nord Yungas, Polo-Polo bei Coroico, 1100 m, vol.3409, p.1954, 1912.

, 275 m, 07º53'45''S, 72º24'30, p.15004, 2010.

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. Plowman, INPA, p.12497, 1982.

M. Grosso:-alta-floresta, A. Rural-de-carlinda, and . 10°00'-s,-56°00'-w, , p.4755, 1986.

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. Tena, Jatun Sacha Biological Station, 400 m, 1°04' S, 77°36' W, p.2678, 1990.

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I. Margarita, ;. Br, K. , and R. B. , Ctenitis refulgens var. refulgens is similar to C. nervata and C. aspidioides (see corresponding notes) by pinnae incision, differing from both by light castaneous, which resemble C. eriocaulis, however not subulate, but linear (Figs. 24A-C). Furthermore, C. eriocaulis pinnae are incised more than 3/4, the indusia is present and the veins from adjacent segments reach the margin well above the sinus. In C. refulgens there are scales also on costa adaxially, while, in C. nervata and C. aspidioides there are not. Furthermore, one vein from adjacent segments can sometimes ends before margin towards the sinus, or the next one or two pairs reach the margin somewhat above the sinus. Fée (1869) cited the collection Spruce 2100 for Phegopteris tricholepis. No holotype or herbarium were specified. Sheets of this collection were, West Indies (Trinidad) and South America, pp.100-900, 1901.

, Type:-PERU. Prope Tabalosas inter urbem Moyobamba et fluvium Río Huallaga, Stübel 1097 (lectotype B 20 0064268!, designated here); remaining syntypes:-PERU, Viveros & Salino, comb. nov. Figs. 05A, 10J, 24D-E, 25D. Dryopteris refulgens (Klotzsch ex Mett.) Christensen (1906: 288) var. peruviana Christensen (1913a: 90), vol.4712

. Peru.-san-martín,

M. Campaña, Spruce 4657 (LD 1765418, B 20 0064269!, isosyntypes BM 000777157!, BM 000777156!, BR 0000013514594!

L. Bolivia and . Paz, Sud Yungas, Alto Beni, Sapecho, Colonia Tarapaca, 610 m, 15 o 32'S, 67 o 21'W, 28 Octuber, 1997.

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, Madre de Díos: Tambopata, Las Piedras. Cusco Amazónico, 200 m, 12°29' S, 69°03' W, p.3136, 1991.

C. Manu and . To-the-village-of-diamante, Southern side of Río Alto Madre de Díos, 400 m, 12 o 20'S, 70 o 57'W, 1998.

S. Martín, Habitat and distribution:-Terrestrial in rainforests, 230-1180 m. South America (Peru and Bolivia; Fig. 26D; Tab. 01). Notes:-Ctenitis refulgens var. peruviana differs from the typical by the pinnae incision 1/4-1/3 of the distance between the segment apex and costa (Fig. 05A), and by darker (castaneous) and lanceolate scales on costa abaxially (Fig. 24D-E), once the typical is incised 1/2-2/3 and the costal scales abaxially are lighter (light castaneous) and linear. When proposing this variety, vol.4712, p.5941, 1913.

, Dryopteris submarginalis (Langsd. & Fisch.) Christensen (1906: 296). Type:-BRAZIL. Santa Catarina: Insula de Santa Catarina, Ctenitis submarginalis (Langsd. & Fisch.) Ching (1940: 250)

, Stems erect, ascending or short-creeping, 2.0-5.5 cm diam., scales 10.0-30.0 × 0.5-1.5 mm, light castaneous, clathrate, lanceolate, entire or slightly denticulate, with or without some short fimbriae at base; leaves 70-175 cm 97), Ctenitis submarginalis f. caripense (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Lellinger (1977: 710). Type:-VENEZUELA

. Cumaná, Humboldt 428 (holotype B-W 19700 -01 1! and B-W 19700 -01 2!

, Type:-BRAZIL, Aspidium caripense (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Mettenius f. macroloba Braun (1858: 02)

H. Nephrodium-tarapotense, Dryopteris submarginalis (Langsd. & Fisch.) Christensen var. tarapotensis (Hook.) Christensen (1913a: 98). Type:-PERU. Tarapoto, in Monte Campaña, Spruce 4016 (lectotype K 000200132! designated by Tryon & Stolze (1991), isolectotype P 01415576!); not isolectotypes:-in Monte Guayrapurina

, Type:-ECUADOR, Nephrodium crinitum Sodiro var. glaucescens Sodiro (1893: 251). Dryopteris submarginalis (Langsd. & Fisch.) C. Chr. f. glaucescens (Sodiro) Christensen (1913a: 97)

S. Nephrodium-lagerheimii, Dryopteris submarginalis (Langsd. & Fisch.) C. Chr. var. lagerheimii (Sodiro) Christensen (1913a: 98). Type:-ECUADOR. Lagerheim s.n. (lectotype P 00642575!

H. Dryopteris-sellowii, Sellow s.n. (lectotype B 20 0067944!, designated here, isolectotypes B 20 0067941!); the other syntype is:-BRAZIL, p.324, 1823.

C. Dryopteris-collina, Type:-PARAGUAY, 922), 1907.

C. Dryopteris-soriloba, Hassler 10454) (lectotype P 00642677!, designated here, isolectotypes BM 000511872!, G 00307823, G 00349449, G 00436365, MPU 015234)

, Schinini et al.23565 (UC). Jujuy: Santa Bárbara, Abra de Los Morteros, 1400.

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S. Paulo, . Morro, and . Jaraguá, Like the typical, C. submarginalis var. tenuifolia is well represented in the herbaria and the presence of indusia is also an inconstant character. This taxon distribution is exclusively atlantic, sympatric with the typical variety, which is not only atlantic but widely distributed in the New World. Due to the sympatry, we recognized it under an infraspecific status. The oldest name for this taxon is Lastrea tenuifolia described by Presl, Brade, vol.5372, 1000.

. Brazil, ;. Mettenius, and . Icn-mcneill, There are three sheets of Pohl 3789 in W (W 0055893, W 0055894, W 0055895) kept as type of Lastrea tenuifolia and they seem to be parts of a single specimen from which fragments were also removed to compose the sheet in PRC. Then, their data may be more precise than what informed by Presl (1849) or, less probably, they are uncited original material. Phegopteris blanchetiana was based on Blanchet 2928 from Bahia state in Brazil (Fée 1852b). Christensen (1913a) included this name as an unknown species of Ctenitis. Such collection is in RB, but its label does not mention Bahia, (1858) and Christensen (1913b) confused it with Aspidium alsophilaceum (C. aspidioides), a name also based on a Pohl's collection. Later, vol.9, 2012.

;. Christensen and . Icn-mcneill, material to what Christ referred and both have a label with "Aspidium Sancti Pauli n. sp." handwritten by Christ. Christensen (1913a) considered this name as synonym of his D. submarginalis f. tenuifolia and cited Wettstein & Schiffner 1901 in Christ's herbarium and W. It seems that Christensen cited the collection year, not collecting number, but he was referring to those two specimens mentioned above, ) has already recognized this name under Dryopteris submarginalis f. tenuifolia and cited Glaziou 963 in Herbarium Hauniense (C), but without mentioning it as type. Then, we designate here a lectotype (Art. 9, vol.12, p.251, 1906.

, Christensen (1906) considered this taxon as Dryopteris, designating the new combination D. ameristoneura. Later, Christensen (1920) considered his combination as synonymous of D. grisebachii (here treated as C. grisebachii). However, he cited D. ameristoneura not as a combination. Contradicting his previous work (Christensen 1906), he demonstrated to be uncertain about the application of the Fée's name, once he said that it was

, We expected to find any herbarium sheet that could be considered as original material in B, were Braun worked. However, nothing that could be assumed as such was found in B, neither in other herbaria visited. We just can not ensure that an original material of it is extant, otherwise this name should be considered invalid (Art. 8.4 of ICN-McNeill et al. 2012). Christensen (1913a) has considered it as a synonym of Dryopteris submarginalis f. caripense. Probably it could correspond to C. submarginalis var. submarginalis, but as we have not examined any original material, The description of Aspidium caripense f. brachyloba was based on a living plant from Colombia, cultivated in Horto Berolinense

, Aspidium microcarpon Fée (1857: 105), nom. illeg., non Blume (1828: 142). Type:-MEXICO. Córdoba, Schaffner, vol.214

, submarginalis) corresponds to A. microchlaena and A. microcarpon as united by Fournier (1872) and treated C. microchlaena as D. karstenii. Probably guided by Fournier's ideas, Mickel & Smith (2004) also considered A. microcarpon as synonym of C. microchlaena. There is a sheet in P (P01415596!) with a label written A. microcarpon, collected by Schaffner but without collecting number, from Orizaba, Mexico, differing from the protologue which informs "prés de Córdoba". Maybe this could be an original material, however it is not with the usual Fée's original label, Fée (1869) described three species of Ctenitis with laminae 1-pinnate-pinnatifid/pinnatisect based on Schaffner's collections from Mexico: Aspidium microcarpon, 1981.

, Nephrodium vestitum var. squamigerum Mett. ex Baker, vol.1870, p.474, 170015.

. Milne-s.n,

. Bowie-&-cunningham-s.n,

, Mac Gillivray s.n. (?)

, Glaziou 965 (P 00170004!, BR 0000013531638!, RB 00608023!), 2373 (P 00643972!, BR 0000006988357!, P 00643971!, P 01630479!), p.2374

, Lindberg 557 (B 20 0054405!)

. Baker, Baker 1868) compared Nephrodium vestitum (here treated as synonym of C. deflexa) to another species, Aspidium squamigerum, attributed to Mettenius

. Icn-mcneill, However, such name has never been published by Mettenius and it is not associated to a description or diagnosis by Baker (Hooker & Baker 1868). Therefore, it is not effectively published (Art, vol.38, 2012.

, The types cited by Baker (1870) represent more than one taxon, e.g. Martius 324, Glaziou 965, 2373, 2374 correspond to C. deflexa, but Lindberg 557, corresponds to C. distans var. isabellina. Although more materials correspond to C. deflexa, the description is ambiguous and consequently it is not possible to be sure about which specimen (s) it refers the most nearly among the types cited. Besides that, Glaziou 965 was previously cited as type of Phegopteris fluminensis and 2373 of Aspidium basilare (Fée 1969), both names that are lectotypified here (see C. deflexa header and notes). Thus, N. vestitum var, Flora Brasiliensis, Baker (1870) validly published Nephrodium vestitum var. squamigerum, specifying that such taxon referred to what Mettenius marked as A. squamigerum on specimens at Hooker's Herbarium (currently in K)

. Rosenstock, Nephrodium squamigerum (Rosenstock 1904: 224, not Hooker & Arnott 1841: 106) as a combination of a Mettenius's name, which could be A. squamigerum. For this, Rosenstock included the vouchers Jürgens & Stier s.n. (J.-St. = Rosenstock exsicc. 32), Schmalz s.n. (S. = Rosenstock exsicc. 43), and Ulbricht s.n. (U. = Rosenstock exsicc. 55). We have not seen such specimens, 1904.

. Christensen, Lindberg 557 was cited by Christensen as D. ctenitis f. isabellina (to which we agree), and Martius 324 as D. ctenitis f. amaurolepis (to which we disagree). Summing up, N. vestitum var squamigerum Mett. ex Baker was an attempt to interpret an unpublished name used by Mettenius and it is illegitimate due to its types were previously designated as types of other names. Even if it was an usable name, its types are composed of more than one taxon and the protologue does not allow knowing which specimen represents, A. squamigerum Mett. (referring to a note in Hooker & Baker 1868), Nephrodium squamigerum Rosenst. and N. vestitum var. squamigerum Baker (erroneously as Nephrodium caripense ? squamigerum), 1913.

, Smith (1846) made an enumeration of the ferns cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden Kew. Among them, he described Polypodium lachnopodium as a new species

;. William and . Icn-mcneill, Even son, Christensen (1920) suggested P. lachnopodium as a synonym of Dryopteris ampla (Ctenitis ampla). Nonetheless, the original description has few information to distinguish C. ampla from another decompound laminae species that occurs in Jamaica, e.g. C. grisebachii and C. excelsa (Desvaux 1827: 243) Proctor (1961: 34). Final Considerations The Ctenitis distribution in South America here presented was expected according to literature data. It differs from other fern genera, which richness and endemism are in Andean regions. The Brazilian Atlantic coast has the highest species richness, mainly in the southeast and south as stated by Tryon & Tryon (1982b) and the northeast must be included in this range. Nonetheless, even though the Brazilian Amazonia (north) and the central-west are known for low richness of ferns, more collection efforts must be done, because those regions are still poorly represented and far from research centers. Other perspectives for studies about Ctenitis could include cytogenetics. Species widely distributed as C. submarginalis var. submarginalis and C. ampla, are also morphologically variable, which could reflect variation in ploidy. Other feature that seems to influence the morphological variation is the elevation, original material was found in K, neither in other herbaria we have visited. It seems that the description was based only on a living plant, and as such, it is not acceptable as type (Art. 8.4 of, p.1920, 1913.

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