P. E. Ahlberg, Paired fin skeletons and relationships of the fossil group Porolepiformes (Osteichthyes: Sarcopterygii), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.96, issue.2, pp.119-166, 1989.

P. E. Ahlberg, A re-examination of sarcopterygian interrelationships, with special reference to the Porolepiformes, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.103, issue.3, pp.241-287, 1991.

P. E. Ahlberg, A new holoptychiid porolepiform fish from the Upper Frasnian of Elgin, Palaeontology, vol.35, pp.813-828, 1992.

P. E. Ahlberg, The palaeoecology and evolutionary history of the porolepiform sarcopterygians, Fossil Fishes as Living Animals. Academy of Sciences of Estonia, pp.71-90, 1992.

S. M. Andrews and T. S. Westoll, XII.?The Postcranial Skeleton of Rhipidistian Fishes Excluding Eusthenopteron, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol.68, issue.12, pp.391-489, 1970.

H. W. Ball, D. L. Dineley, and E. I. White, The Old Red Sandstone of Brown Clee Hill and the adjacent area, Bulletin of the British Museum, vol.5, pp.175-310, 1961.

L. S. Berg, Bulletin de l'Académie des Sciences, de l'URSS, Classe des Sciences mathématiques et naturelles, vol.4, pp.1277-1280, 1937.

A. Blieck and D. K. Elliott, Pteraspidomorphs (Vertebrata), the Old Red Sandstone, and the special case of the Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, U.K., Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, vol.128, issue.3, pp.438-446, 2017.

G. Clément, Evidence for lack of choanae in the Porolepiformes, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, vol.21, issue.4, pp.795-802, 2001.

G. Clément, Porolepididae, Sarcopterygii) et du genre Powichthys Jessen, 1975 (Powichthyidae, Sarcopterygii) du Dévonien Inférieur et Moyen du Spitzberg-Phylogénie des Dipnomorpha, vol.297, 1969.

G. Clément, Nouvelles données anatomiques et morphologie générale des "Porolepididae, vol.9, pp.193-211, 2004.

G. Clément and P. Janvier, Powichthys spitsbergensis sp. nov., a new member of the Dipnomorpha (Sarcopterygii, lobe-finned fishes) from the Lower Devonian of Spitsbergen, with remarks on basal dipnomorph anatomy, Fossils and Strata, vol.50, pp.92-112, 2004.

G. Clément and P. E. Ahlberg, From Sarcopterygian Fish to Modern Humans, Muscles of Vertebrates, pp.287-358, 2010.

K. Elliot, J. G. Maisey, X. Yu, and D. Miao, Morphology, Phylogeny and Paleobiogeography of Fossil Fishes

R. Cloutier and P. E. Ahlberg, Morphology, Characters, and the Interrelationships of Basal Sarcopterygians, Interrelationships of Fishes, pp.445-479, 1996.

M. L. Stiassny, L. R. Parenti, and G. D. Johnson, Preface, Interrelationships of Fishes, pp.xi-xiii, 1996.

R. Cloutier and H. Schultze, Porolepiform fishes (Sarcopterygii), Devonian Fishes and Plants of Miguasha, pp.248-270, 1996.

J. P. Downs, E. B. Daeschler, F. A. Jenkins, and N. H. Shubin, A new species ofLaccognathus(Sarcopterygii, Porolepiformes) from the Late Devonian of Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, vol.31, issue.5, pp.981-996, 2011.

J. P. Downs, E. B. Daeschler, F. A. Jenkins, and N. H. Shubin, Holoptychius bergmannisp. nov. (Sarcopterygii, Porolepiformes) from the Upper Devonian of Nunavut, Canada, and a Review ofHoloptychiusTaxonomy, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol.162, issue.1, pp.47-59, 2013.

M. Friedman-? and M. D. Brazeau-?, A reappraisal of the origin and basal radiation of the Osteichthyes, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, vol.30, issue.1, pp.36-56, 2010.

W. Gross, Die unterdevonischen Fische und Gigantostraken von Overath, Abhandlungen der Preusischen Geologischen Landesanstalt, vol.145, pp.41-77, 1933.

W. Gross, Beiträge zur Osteologie baltischer und rheinischer Devon-Crossopterygier, Paläontologische Zeitschrift, vol.18, issue.3-4, pp.129-155, 1936.

W. Gross, Uber den Unterkiefer einiger devonischer Crossopterygier, Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Math. Naturw. Klasse, vol.7, pp.1-51, 1941.

W. Gross, Über Crossopterygier und Dipnoer aus dem baltischen Oberdevon im Zusammenhang einer vergleichenden Untersuchung des Porenkanalsystems paläozoischer Agnathen und Fische, Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, vol.5, issue.6, pp.1-140, 1956.

T. Holland, The endocranial anatomy of Gogonasus andrewsae Long, 1985 revealed through micro CT-scanning, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol.105, issue.1, pp.9-34, 2014.

T. H. Huxley, On the Representatives of the Malleus and the Incus of the Mammalia in the other Vertebrata, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, vol.37, issue.1, pp.391-408, 2009.

U. Jansen, Brachiopod faunas, facies and biostratigraphy of the Pridolian to lower Eifelian succession in the Rhenish Massif (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol.423, issue.1, pp.45-122, 2016.

, Discussion Session 9, Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publications, vol.3, issue.1, pp.423-425, 1986.

P. Janvier, Early Vertebrates, 1996.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00410636

E. Jarvik, Från patologisk anatomiska Institutionen i Lund, Nordiskt Medicinskt Arkiv, vol.26, issue.21, pp.1-41, 2009.

E. Jarvik, Middle and Upper Devonian Porolepiformes from East Greenland with special reference to Glyptolepis groenlandica n. sp., and a discussion on the structure of the head in the Porolepiformes, Meddelelser om Grønland, vol.187, issue.2, pp.1-307, 1972.

E. Jarvik, Basic Structure and Evolution of Vertebrates, vol.1, p.pp, 1980.

H. L. Jessen, Lower Devonian Porolepiformes from the Canadian Arctic with special reference to Powichthys thorsteinssoni Jessen, Palaeontographica Abteilung A, vol.167, pp.180-214, 1980.

H. L. Jessen, Ein rhipidistier Fischrest aus den Klerf-Schichten (oberes Unter-Devon) der Eifel (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge), Palaeontographica, Abteilung A, vol.206, pp.17-24, 1989.

Z. Johanson, P. E. Ahlberg, R. , and A. , First record of Porolepis (Sarcopterygii; Porolepiformes) from eastern Gondwana, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.50, issue.3, pp.249-253, 2013.

G. Kade, Ueber die Devonischen Fishreste eines Diluvialblockes, Programm der Königlichen Realschule zu Meseritz, vol.24, 1858.

J. Kulczycki, Porolepis (Crossopterygii) from the Lower Devonian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, vol.5, pp.65-104, 1960.

O. A. Lebedev, E. Luk?evi?s, and G. V. Zakharenko, Palaeozoogeographical connections of the Devonian vertebrate communities of the Baltica Province. Part II. Late Devonian, Palaeoworld, vol.19, issue.1-2, pp.108-128, 2010.

J. Lu, S. Giles, M. Friedman, J. L. Den blaauwen, and M. Zhu, The Oldest Actinopterygian Highlights the Cryptic Early History of the Hyperdiverse Ray-Finned Fishes, Current Biology, vol.26, issue.12, pp.1602-1608, 2016.

J. G. Maisey, HEADS AND TAILS: A CHORDATE PHYLOGENY, Cladistics, vol.2, issue.4, pp.201-256, 1986.

R. F. Miller and M. D. Brazeau, A Late Devonian Porolepiform fish (<i>Holoptychius</i>) and the age of the Kennebecasis Formation, southern New Brunswick, Canada, Atlantic Geology, vol.43, issue.0, p.187, 2007.

J. Mondéjar?fernández, M. Friedman, and S. Giles, Redescription of the cranial skeleton of the Early Devonian (Emsian) sarcopterygian Durialepis edentatus Otto (Dipnomorpha, Porolepiformes), Papers in Palaeontology, vol.42, issue.1, pp.41-65, 2020.

J. Mondéjar-fernández and G. Clément, Squamation and scale microstructure evolution in the Porolepiformes (Sarcopterygii, Dipnomorpha) based on Heimenia ensis from the Devonian of Spitsbergen, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, vol.32, issue.2, pp.267-284, 2012.

J. Mondéjar-fernández and P. Janvier, Further evidence for the presence of holoptychiid porolepiforms (Sarcopterygii, Dipnomorpha) from the Frasnian of Colombia, Comptes Rendus Palevol, vol.13, issue.7, pp.587-597, 2014.

D. V. Obruchev, Description of four new species from the Devonian of Leningrad Province. Material of the Central Scientfic Geological and Prsospecting Institute, Palaeontology and Stratigraphy Magazine, vol.1, pp.12-14, 1933.

T. Ørvig, Remarks on the vertebrate fauna of the Lower Upper Devonian of Escuminac Bay, P. Q., Canada, with special reference to the Porolepiform Crossopterygians, Arkiv för Zoologi, vol.2, issue.10, pp.481-490, 1957.


M. Otto, Durialepis edentatus n. gen., n. sp., ein neuer Rhipidistier (Osteichthyes, Sarcopterygii) aus dem Unter-Devon des Rheinischen Schiefergebirges, Geologica et Palaeontologica, vol.41, pp.3-25, 2007.

A. L. Panchen and T. R. Smithson, CHARACTER DIAGNOSIS, FOSSILS AND THE ORIGIN OF TETRAPODS, Biological Reviews, vol.62, issue.4, pp.341-436, 1987.

A. S. Romer, Herpetichthyes, Amphibioidei, Choanichthyes, or Sarcopterygii?, Nature, vol.176, p.126, 1955.

H. Schultze, Die Faltenzähne der Rhipidistiiden Crossopterygier, der Tetrapoden und der Actinopterygier-gattung Lepisosteus, Palaeontographica Italica, vol.65, pp.63-136, 1969.

H. Schultze, Crossopterygian scales from the uppermost Upper Devonian of Latvia (Osteichthyes, Pisces), Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Monatshefte, vol.1980, issue.4, pp.215-228, 1980.

H. Schultze, A Porolepiform Rhipidistian from the Lower Devonian of the Canadian Arctic, Fossil Record, vol.3, issue.1, pp.99-109, 2000.

H. Schultze and M. Arsenault, Quebecius quebecensis (Whiteaves), a porolepiform crossopterygian (Pisces) from the Late Devonian of Quebec, Canada, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol.24, issue.12, pp.2351-2361, 1987.

K. S. Thomson, Glyptolepis from the Middle Devonian of Scotland, Postilia, vol.99, pp.1-10, 1966.

E. I. Vorobyeva, Observations on two rhipidistian fishes from the Upper Devonian of Lode, Latvia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol.70, pp.191-211, 1980.

E. I. Vorobyeva, Porolepid crossopterygian from the Middle Devonian of Estonia, Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, issue.1, pp.76-85, 1987.

E. I. Vorobyeva, A new species of Laccognathus (Porolepiform Crossopterygii) from the Devonian of Latvia, Paleontological Journal, vol.40, issue.3, pp.312-322, 2006.

M. Zhu, W. Zhao, L. Jia, J. Lu, T. Qiao et al., The oldest articulated osteichthyan reveals mosaic gnathostome characters, Nature, vol.458, pp.469-474, 2009.

. Ta,

, Po, postorbital; poc, postotic lateral line canal

, Ext, extratemporal ramification of the postotic lateral line canal

. Sbm,

. Sop, . Sq, . Su, and . Pa,

T. Ta, Comparison of dermal skull patterns across porolepiforms in lateral (A, C, E, G, I, scale bar equals 10 mm) and dorsal

, Nasogaluakus chorni (C-D) after Schultze, 1972.

F. Vorobyeva, Glyptolepis groenlandica (G-H) after Jarvik 1972. Holoptychius sp. (I-J) after Jarvik, 1972.

, Abbreviations: Br, branchiostegal rays

. De, . Ext, . Gu, and . Ifd,

. Ju, ;. L. La, and . Ex,

M. Ex,

. Mx, . Op, . Pa, and . Pae, Po, postorbital; Pp, postparietal; Pop, preopercular; Prsp, prespiracular; Psbm, preoperculosubmandibular; Qj, quadratojugal; Sbm, submandibular series; Sop, subopercular; Sq, squamosal; sSq