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Generating kinetic data on the advancement of Maillard reactions during sponge cake baking

Souad Fehaili
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Mathilde Courel
Rega B.
Pierre Giampaoli
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Catherine C. Bonazzi


This work is the first step of a study dedicated to the development and validation of a methodology allowing predicting the advancement of Maillard reactions (MR) during baking of a model sponge cake. The reaction rate was assessed by measuring at given steps of the baking operation, the concentration of chemical markers selected for their specificity to the main identified reaction pathways. Some of the markers, being either substrates – glucose, total nitrogen – or reactive products – hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) – were directly measured by chemical analyses of the sponge cake matrix. Volatile markers were synchronously extracted from the atmosphere surrounding the product during baking and analysed by GC: furfural, pyranone, Strecker aldehydes, acetic acid and HMF. The latter chemical marker offers the big advantage of being present in both condensed and volatile phases. The baking operations were driven in a discontinuous convective baking oven specially designed to achieve a homogeneous and stable thermal environment. Physical variables (water content and temperatures of product and baking atmosphere) were registered for all experiments synchronously to the chemical variables. Special attention was paid to the sampling procedures, designed to generate reliable chemical kinetic data. Such procedures were characterised on the sponge cake matrix as well as on the vapours within the baking atmosphere. The results show the kinetics obtained for the selected chemical markers and physical variables under specific baking conditions. The repeatability of the kinetics could be established in the sponge cake matrix as well as in the vapours produced during baking. The kinetics of HMF production could be compared in both matrix and vapours. This study is part of the project REACTIAL (ANR-06-PNRA-023) supported by the French National Research Agency: “Prediction and control of appearance and disappearance of reaction markers during food process and conservation”. The objective is to develop rational strategies in order to preserve as well as possible the integrity of the nutritional compounds of a food or to enhance the production of positive newly formed compounds. The project aims at analysing the impact of formulation and heat and mass transfers on the reaction kinetics.
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Dates and versions

mnhn-03921055 , version 1 (03-01-2023)


  • HAL Id : mnhn-03921055 , version 1


Souad Fehaili, Mathilde Courel, Rega B., Pierre Giampaoli, Catherine C. Bonazzi. Generating kinetic data on the advancement of Maillard reactions during sponge cake baking. 5th International Technical Symposium on Food Processing, Monitoring Technology in Bioprocesses and Food Quality Management, Aug 2009, Potsdam, Germany. ⟨mnhn-03921055⟩
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