Les malacofaunes marines archéologiques du Ja’alan (Sultanat d'Oman) : un indicateur des modes de vie des populations dans leur environnement, du Néolithique à l’Âge du Bronze

Abstract : During the Neolithic and Bronze Age, the coastal sites of the region of Ja’alan in the Sultanate of Oman, give evidence of an important consumption of marine molluscs. From the study of shell remains from the archaeological sites of Suwayh 1 (SWY 1) and 3, Ra’s al-Khabbah, Ra’s al-Jinz 1 and 2 and Ra’s al-Hadd 6, I observed opportunist gathering strategies during the Neolithic, while during the Bronze Age there was a gradual specialization on big shells, or focus on a particular environment or even one or a few species. At SWY 1, which was studied more thoroughly, the gathering strategy is opportunist. Consequently shell material should reflect the environment. Collected species reveal a lagoon environment during of the 5th millennium BC and the presence of a mangrove around 4500 BC, as suggested by pollen analyses. Variations in the different zones of collection seem to correspond with palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental data, with a peak of precipitation during the summer monsoons at the beginning of the Holocene optimum between 7600 and 5500 BC. The biometric data of Lunella coronata indicate an overexploitation of this mollusc by the human communities at the end of the site occupation period. Moreover, from the sclerochronology study of this species, I observe a seasonal collection, probably during the winter months. The analysis of shell remains from Ja’alan indicates a way of life essentially linked to the exploitation of marine resources. The presence of an important monsoon and consequently a very strong upwelling in the summer probably forced the populations to mobility, as reflected in the sclerochronological study of the species Lunella coronata.
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Chloé Martin. Les malacofaunes marines archéologiques du Ja’alan (Sultanat d'Oman) : un indicateur des modes de vie des populations dans leur environnement, du Néolithique à l’Âge du Bronze. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 2005. Français. ⟨tel-02103558⟩

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