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Identités funéraires, variants biologiques et facteurs chronologiques : une nouvelle perception du contexte culturel et social du Cerny (Bassin parisien, 4700-4300 avant J.-C.)

Abstract : During the 5th millennium B.C., the Paris Basin sees the emergence of the first necropoles and funerary monumentality. Associated with the Cerny culture, these vestiges offer a privileged insight into the social transformations of Middle Neolithic communities in France. Following an archaeo-anthropological approach, we present a full assessment of the Cerny population as a whole, according to the three types of sites (Passy type structures, extended flat sites and slab graves) and with regard to each necropolis. The sites of Passy, Balloy, Gron, Escolives-Sainte-Camille, Vignely (La Noue Fenard and La Porte aux Bergers), Chichery, Orville, Malesherbes (Les Marsaules and La Chaise), which comprise the bulk of Cerny skeletons uncovered (n=160), constitute the object of this study. The cross-referencing of biological and archaeological parameters is systematized and subjected to statistical reasoning, regardless of the scalar value. These results, combined with new 14C dates, provide a reliable interpretive framework. Intrasite analyses reveal different modes of selection of the deceased and, occasionally, codified grouping of burials into separate loci. The rank of the dead and their social status play a predominant role in the structuring of the sites. Two models of organisation, one of which is repeated in every necropolis, illustrate the social stratification operating within monumental structures. The presence of individuals of similar status in flat necropoles suggests that the social identity of individuals is not the raison d'être of monumental graves. Moreover, the duality of the Cerny culture, traditionally seen as two diachronic manifestations of this culture, must now be reconsidered. The clear typological distinction between the long passage tombs of the Passy type and the slab graves of the Malesherbes type is herein upheld on both funerary and biological levels, regardless of chronology, thus calling the Cerny cultural unity into question.
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Aline Thomas. Identités funéraires, variants biologiques et facteurs chronologiques : une nouvelle perception du contexte culturel et social du Cerny (Bassin parisien, 4700-4300 avant J.-C.). Anthropologie biologique. Université Bordeaux 1, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-02548465⟩

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