Production, purification et caractérisation de peptides antimicrobiens d’archées halophiles isolées de la saline de Sfax en Tunisie

Abstract : The solar saltern of Sfax is a hypersaline located in the central area of the eastern coast of Tunisia. In this study, we isolated, identified, and characterized halophilic strains producing antimicrobial peptides (halocins), aiming to understand their role in microbial interactions in hypersaline environments. Two ponds (TS18, 390 g.L-1 NaCl and M1, 200 g.L-1 NaCl) were selected for sampling. Thirty-five halophilic strains have been isolated and characterized, among which 11 displayed antimicrobial activity. Three of them produced antimicrobial substances of proteinaceous nature. Using PCR and RT-PCR, we have demonstrated that Halobacterium salinarum ETD5 and ETD8 express the gene encoding halocin S8, a 3.6 kDa peptide previously isolated from a strain S8 unidentified. The peptide was purified from cultures of strain Hbt. salinarum ETD5. Following bioguided purification, the active fractions revealed two protein bands of 8 and 14 kDa exhibiting antimicrobial activity. N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry analyses allowed identification of these two halocins. The 8 kDa band corresponds to halocin S8, undergoing a different proteolytic post-translational processing from that originallydescribed. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the precursor of halocin S8 showed that the sequence is identical for both strains ETD5 and S8a. The 14 kDa band is a new halocin termed halocin S14. Halocin S14 corresponds to an N-terminally truncated portion of the archaeal Mnsuperoxide dismutase (SOD). This could result from divergent evolution of a gene encoding two distinct proteins, or a different post-translational processing of SOD. Our study helps to better understand which molecules are involved in microbial interactions within hypersaline environments and and how they contribute to the competitions in such extreme environments, which are susceptible to give rise to original structures and modes of action.
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Fadoua Ghanmi. Production, purification et caractérisation de peptides antimicrobiens d’archées halophiles isolées de la saline de Sfax en Tunisie. Biologie moléculaire. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MNHN0016⟩. ⟨tel-01941704⟩

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